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Chapter 17

Connecting
Devices
And
Virtual
LANs
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Chapter 17: Outline

17.1 CONNECTING DEVICES

17.2 VIRTUAL LANS


17-1 CONNECTING DEVICES

Connecting devices are used to connect hosts


together to make a network or to connect
networks together to make an internet.

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17-1 CONNECTING DEVICES

Connecting devices can operate in different


layers of the TCP/IP model.

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17-1 CONNECTING DEVICES

three common connecting devices:

repeater-hubs,
link-layer switches, and
routers.

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Figure 17.1: Three categories of connecting devices

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17.17.1 Repeater-Hubs

A repeater-hub is a multiport device that operates only


in the physical layer.

Signals carrying information within a network can


travel a fixed distance before attenuation endangers
the integrity of the data.

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17.17.1 Repeater-Hubs

A repeater receives a signal then regenerates and


retimes the original bit pattern.

A repeater-hub (hub for short) is a multiport repeater.

The incoming signal is regenerated, retimed and sent


through all ports excluding the entry port.

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Figure 17.2: Hub

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17.17.2 Link-Layer Switches

A link-layer switch operates in both the physical and


the data-link layers.

AKA,
2-layer switch

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17.17.2 Link-Layer Switches

As a physical-layer device, it regenerates the signal it


receives.

As a link-layer device, the link-layer switch can check


the MAC addresses (source and destination)
contained in the frame.

Some switches operate using virtual circuit identifiers


or virtual path identifiers (or both).

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17.17.2 Link-Layer Switches

Example (private Ethernet network with a 2-layer


switch)

The switch table needs entries for each connected


device MAC addresses and the corresponding port
number.

MAC address: 48 bits, 12 nibbles, 6 octets.

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Figure 17.3: Link-Layer Switch

17.13
17.17.2 Link-Layer Switches

Example (private Ethernet network with a 2-layer


switch)

A 2-layer switch is much smarter than a


repeater(hub). The switch forwards the message
through the appropriate port or ports as determined by
the frame header fields.

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17.17.2 Learning Switch

A learning switch can build a forwarding table by


looking at the source address and corresponding port
number.

Frames can be broadcast to the unassigned ports (like


a hub) until all the ports are assigned. This can be
accomplished with Switch Port Mapping Software

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17.17.2 Switch Software

SNMP = Switch Network Mapping Protocol

Managed Switch Port Mapping Tool


NetDB = Network Tracking Database
OpUtils
Lan-sweeper

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Figure 17.4: Learning switch

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17.17.2 Switchs

Unmanaged switches – plug-n-play, without a


management interface.

Managed switches – will include a command line


interface.
• Smart switches
• Managed switches

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Figure 17.5: Loop problem in a learning switch (Part a)

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Figure 17.5: Loop problem in a learning switch (Part b)

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Figure 17.5: Loop problem in a learning switch (Part c)

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Figure 17.5: Loop problem in a learning switch (part d)

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Figure 17.6: A system of connected LANs and its graph (Part a)

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Switch link assignment
 Switch to Lan = 1
 Lan to Switch = 0
Figure 17.6: A system of connected LANs and its graph (Part b)

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Figure 17.7: Finding the shortest path and the spanning tree for a
switch.

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Figure 17.8: Forwarding and blocking ports after using spanning
tree algorithm

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17.17.3 Routers

We will discuss routers in Part IV of the book when


we discuss the network layer.

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17.17.3 Routers

A router is a three-layer device; it operates in the


physical, data-link, and network layers.

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Figure 17.9: Routing example

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17-2 VIRTUAL LANS

A virtual local area network (VLAN) is a local


area network configured by software, not by
physical wiring.

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Figure 17.10: A switch connecting three LANs by wire

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Figure 17.11: A switch using VLAN software

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Figure 17.12: Two switches in a backbone using VLAN software

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17.2.1 Membership

Characteristic used to group stations in a VLAN:

● interface numbers,
● port numbers,

● MAC addresses,

● IP addresses,

● or a combination of two or more of these.

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17.2.1 VLAN

VLANs …

●Save time and money because stations


can be moved to any VLAN without re-
wiring.

● Help manage network traffic

Separate LANS
● for better security
management
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