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Cell Motility

Copyright (c) by W. H. Freeman and Company


Pergerakan sel

Cytoskeleton
-serabut protein yg ditemukan di sel
eukariotik
-support bentuk sel
-menjaga organela pada lokasi yg tetap
-membantu perpindahan material ke
dalam sel

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 Bagian sitoplasma, di antara organela
penuh anyaman benang2 halus
 Disebut jala2 mikrotrabekula (mirip bunga
karang)
 Krn membentuk kerangka sel shg disebut
sitoskeleton

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Cytoskeleton

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The
Cytoskeleton
in Action

Sel darah
putih
menggunakan
sitokeleton
untuk
“meraih”
bacteri.

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The Cytoskeleton

An animal cell cytoskeleton

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The Cytoskeleton in Action

Cilia on a protozoan Beating sperm tail at fertilization

Smoker’s cough is due to destruction of cilia linking the airways.


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During blood clotting, platelets change shape
due to changes in the actin cytoskeleton

Figure 18-8
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Komponen Penyusun
Sitoskeleton

 Protein yg di sitosol mmbentuk benang


halus disbut filamen
 Ada 3 macam (berdasar struktur dan garis
tengah)
: mikrotubula (24 nm), mikrofilamen (60
Ao), filamen intermedia (8-10 nm)

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19.6 Functions and structure of intermediate filaments
distinguish them from other cytoskeletal fibers

Copyright (c) by W. Figure 19-50


mikrotubula

 Filamen dgn diameter trbesar (24 nm)


 Trsusun atas 13 protofilamen
 Tiap protofilamen tdr dr molekul2 tubulin
(tubulin alfa dan beta)
 Punya kutub positif yg pertumbuhannya
cepat, kutub negatif prtumbuhannya
lambat

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Heterodimeric tubulin subunits compose the
wall of a microtubule

Figure 19-2
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19.1 Arrangement of protofilaments in
singlet, doublet, and triplet microtubules

Figure 19-3
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 Berfungsi memberi bentuk sel, gerakan
sel, menentukan bidng pembelahan sel
 Membentuk flagela, silia, sentriol

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Mikrofilamen

 Trdiri dr mikrofilamen aktin, meosin dan


tropomeosin (byk di otot)
Aktin
 aktin mrpkan protein kontraktil terbanyak
di sel eukariotik
 Dalam bentuk monomer disebut Aktin G
 Dalam bentuk filamen disebut Aktin F

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 Bersifat labil (mudah terakit dan terurai)
 Terlibat dlm proses sitokinesis, aliran
plasma, gerakan sel, gerakan mikrovili
intestinal

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The actin cytoskeleton
 Filamen aktin(or microfilaments) adalah salah satu dr 3
filamen protein yg menyusun system cytoskeleton
 Eukaryotic cells contain abundant amounts of highly
conserved actin

Copyright (c) by W. Figure 18-1


18.1 The actin cytoskeleton is organized
into bundles and networks of filaments

Figure 18-4
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Actin cross-linking proteins bridge actin
filaments to form bundles and networks

Figure 18-5
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Filamen Intermedia

 Bersifat liat
 Punya daya rentang tinggi.
 Benang berongga terdiri 5 protofilamen
 Diameter 8-10 nm
 Banyak terdapat di inti, dan sel yg alami
stress mekanik spt epitelium, akson sel
saraf dan otot polos

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Pergerakan otot/muscle

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Microanatomy of Skeletal
Muscle

sel otot =
serabut otot
yg mengandung
myofibril

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Muscle: a specialized contractile machine

Figure 18-26
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 Tiap serabut otot terdiri dari ribuan
myofibril
 Tiap myofibril terdapat 1500 filamen
meosin dan 3000 filamen aktin
 Tiap filamen meosin terdiri dari molekul
meosin BM 33.200 dan molekul aktin
BM 70.000

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 Dengan mikroskup cahaya : nampak
gambaran gelap terang kepadatan
relatif dan ada bagian yang tumpah
tindih dr aktin dan miosin

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Pita cahaya I
 Terdiri filamen aktin saja (nampak terang)
 Sifat terhadap cahaya yg terpolarisasi
(berkas cahaya yg datang dipancarkan ke
semua jurusan krn kepadatan sama)

I band

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Pita A
 Terletak dimana aktin dan meosin
tumpang tindih (shg nampak gelap)
 Sifat anisotropik (cahaya dipancarkan
tdk merata)

A band
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Sarkomer
 Terbentuk oleh 2 garis Z (protein
nonkontraktil) atau sebuah pita A dan 2
belahan pita I

Sarkoplasma
 Sitoplasma sel2 otot
 Terdapat retikulum sarkopasma agranuler

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Z line Z line

H band

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Filamen meosin
Tediri 2 utas peptid yg satu sama lainnya saling melilit
dalam suatu heliks yg ujungnya membntuk kepala.

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Filamen aktin
Terdiri 3 unsur : troponin, tropomeosin, aktin

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 Active site : suatu molekul ADP dimana
filamen meosin saling mengadakan interaksi
dgn filamen aktin shg terjadi kontraksi otot
 Tropomeosin : merupakan protein yg akan
“menutupi” active site shg tdk terjadi kontraksi
 Troponin : akan berikatan dgn Ca utk
permulaan kontraksi

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Ilustrasi sarkomer
H Band

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18.4 Capping proteins stabilize the ends
of actin thin filaments in the sarcomere

Figure 18-28
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18.4 Thick and thin filaments slide past
one another during contraction

Figure 18-29
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18.4 Titin and nebulin filaments organize
the sarcomere

Figure 18-30
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18.4 A rise in cytosolic Ca2+ triggers
muscle contraction (part I)

Figure 18-31a
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18.4 A rise in cytosolic Ca2+ triggers
muscle contraction (part II)

Figure 18-31b
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18.4 Tropomyosin and troponin regulate contraction in
skeletal muscle

Figure 18-32
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18.4 Ca2+-dependent mechanisms for regulating
contraction in skeletal and smooth muscle

Figure 18-33
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18.4 Myosin-dependent mechanisms also
control contraction in some muscles

Figure 18-34
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