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COMMNET ’18

Welcome..!!
WHAT IS A SIGNAL..?
SIGNAL IS..

A function which carries some information about a


phenomenon.
 Varies with time and space.
Signals

Continuous Time Discrete Time


Continuous Time
Signals

Continuous Time Continuous Amplitude Continuous Time Discrete


Amplitude
Discrete Time
Signals

Discrete Time Continuous Amplitude Discrete Time Discrete Amplitude


WHAT DOES A SIGNAL POSSESS..?

A signal is generally represented as Asin(2πft +φ)


 Amplitude(A)
 Frequency(f)
 Phase(φ)
 Signal pattern repeats itself after fixed time intervals.
 One complete pattern is called a cycle.
 Time taken to complete one cycle is Time Period.

Then what is frequency ..?

PERIODIC SIGNALS
 Signal does not repeat like periodic signals do.
 It is random in nature.

 Guess an aperiodic signal in our daily life..


 Voice

APERIODIC SIGNALS
COMMUNICATION SIGNALS

The ones that talk..


 Processing an analog signal is time consuming.
 To convert a continuous signal into discrete signal we use
sampling.

SAMPLING
 If we record a sound wave (continuous) and convert it into a
sequence of samples at equal intervals of time.
A sample refers to a value or set of values at an instant
 In the field of digital signal processing, there are bridges between
the analog domain and digital domain.
These are known as Sampling theorems.

SAMPLING (CONTINUED..)
 Fourier series is a mathematical tool that represents any periodic
function in an infinite trigonometric functions.

FOURIER SERIES
HOW ?
FOURIER SERIES OF SQUARE WAVE
 Time domain has it’s own limitations
Filtering cannot be easily understood in this analysis
 What do we do in Frequency domain ?

FREQUENCY DOMAIN
 Fourier transform is a method to convert signals in time domain to
frequency domain.
 Depending on the signal we use the discrete or analog Fourier
transform to convert it.

FOURIER TRANSFORM
Formula to compute Fourier transform(CFT) for an analog signal is,


X(f) = ‫׬‬−∞ 𝑥 𝑡 𝑒 −𝑖2𝜋𝑓𝑡 𝑑𝑡

Formula to compute Fourier transform(DFT) for a discrete signal is,


𝑖2𝜋𝑛𝑘

X(k) = σ 𝑁−1
𝑛=0 𝑥(𝑛)𝑒 𝑁
 What is Spectrum ??
 Any function plotted with respect frequency is called spectrum.

SPECTRUM
 Abhay Raghav (7839361085)
 Chetan Dashora(8890266356)
 Ayushman (8878974537)
 Dynesh Kodidasu(8173863973)

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