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Acceptance Sampling

FQA LECTURE 7-A


Outline
Definition of Acceptance Sampling
Advantages and Disadvantages of Acceptance Sampling
Properties of Good Acceptance Plan
Types of Sampling Plans
a. Attributes Sampling Plans
a.1. Single-Sampling Plan
a.2. Double-Sampling Plan
a.3. Multiple-Sampling Plan
a.4. Sequential Sampling Plan
b. Variables Sampling Plans
Sampling Risks and Parameters
a. Producer’s and Consumer’s Risk
b. OC Curves
c. AQL, LTPD, ASN, AOQL, and ATI
Definition of Acceptance Sampling

Acceptance Sampling
 refers to the application of specific sampling
plans to a designated lot or sequence of lots.

 a form of inspection applied to lots or batches


of items before or after a process to judge
conformance with predetermined standards
(specifications).

 a decision making tool by which a conclusion is


reached regarding the acceptability of lot.
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Acceptance Sampling
Advantages
• Acceptance sampling eliminates poor lots & improve overall quality
of product.

• Reduces inspection costs & risk.

• Fewer inspectors, thereby simplifying the recruiting and training


problem.

• Upgrading the inspection job from piece-by-piece decisions to lot-


by-lot decisions.

• A rejected lot is frequently a signal to the manufacturer that the


process should be improved.
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Acceptance Sampling
Disadvantages
• There are risks of accepting “bad” lots
and of rejecting “good” lots.

• There is added planning and


documentation.

• The sample usually provides less


information about the product than does
100 percent inspection.
Properties of Good Acceptance Plan

Properties of a Good Acceptance Plan

• Protect the producer against having lots rejected when the


product is in a state of control, and satisfactory as to level and
uniformity.

• Protect the consumer against the acceptance of bad lots.

• Provide long-run protection to the consumer.

• Encourage the producer to keep the process in control.

• Minimize sampling costs, inspection, and administration.

• Provide information concerning product quality.


Types of Sampling Plans

Sampling Plans

Attributes Sampling Plans Variables Sampling Plans

Single Sampling Plan

Double Sampling Plan

Multiple Sampling Plan

Sequential Sampling Plan


Types of Sampling Plans

Attributes Sampling Plan


• Attributes sampling is the most commonly used,
more than 1 type of quality characteristics can
be considered for each sample.

• In these plans, a sample is taken from the lot


and each unit classified as conforming or
nonconforming. The number of nonconforming
is then compared with the acceptance number
stated in the plan and a decision is made to
accept or reject the lot.
Types of Sampling Plans

Variables Sampling Plan


• In these plans, a sample is taken and a measurement of
a specified quality characteristic is made on each unit.

• Measurements are then summarized into a simple


statistic (e.g., sample mean) and the observed value
compared with an allowable value defined in the plan.

• A decision is then made to accept or reject the lot.


When applicable, variables plans provide the same
degree of consumer protection as attributes plans
while using considerably smaller samples.
Types of Sampling Plans

Comparisons of Attributes and Variables Sampling Plans for Percent Defective


Types of Sampling Plans :Attributes
Sampling Plan
Single-Sampling Plan
• The decision to accept or reject a lot is based on the results of
inspection of a single group of units drawn from the lot.

Procedure
• The procedure is to take a random sample of size (n)
from a lot (N) and inspect each item. If the number of
defects does not exceed a specified acceptance number
(c), the entire lot is accepted.

• If the number of defects in the sample is greater than c,


the entire lot will be subjected to100 percent inspection
or rejects the entire lot and returns it to the producer.
Types of Sampling Plans :Attributes
Sampling Plan
Single-Sampling Plan Procedure
Types of Sampling Plans :Attributes
Sampling Plan
Double-Sampling Plan
• A plan in which management specifies two sample sizes and two
acceptance numbers; if the quality of the lot is very good or very
bad, the decision to accept or reject the lot on the basis of the
first sample, which is smaller than in the single-sampling plan.

Procedure
• The procedure is to take a random sample of size n1. If the
number of defects is less than or equal to c1 , the lot is accepted.
If the number of defects is greater than c2, the lot is rejected. If
the number of defects is between c1 and c2, another sample,
second sample of size n2 is to be taken. If the combined number of
defects in the two samples is less than or equal to c2, the lot is
accepted. Otherwise, it is rejected.
Types of Sampling Plans :Attributes
Sampling Plan
Double-Sampling Plan Procedure
Types of Sampling Plans :Attributes
Sampling Plan
Multiple Sampling Plan
• A plan that uses more than two smaller samples of n individual
items (usually truncated after some number of samples) until a
decision to accept or reject is obtained.

Procedure
• The procedure is to take a random sample of size n1. If the
number of defects is less than or equal to c1 , the lot is accepted.
If the number of defects is greater than c2, the lot is rejected. If
the number of defects is between c1 and c2, another sample,
second sample of size n2 is to be taken. Continue sampling until
accept or reject lot based on all sample data.
Types of Sampling Plans :Attributes
Sampling Plan
Sequential Sampling Plan
• A case of multiple sampling which uses unlimited number of samples
and inspect the samples one by one. Sampling and decision making
continues until a clear cut decision is obtained either to accept or
reject.

Procedure
• Each time an item is inspected, a decision is made to (1) reject
the lot, (2) accept the lot, or (3) continue sampling, based on the
cumulative results so far. The analyst plots the total number of
defectives against the cumulative sample size, and if the number
of defectives is less than a certain acceptance number (c1), the
consumer accepts the lot. If the number is greater than another
acceptance number (c2), the consumer rejects the lot. If the
number is somewhere between the two, another item is inspected.
Types of Sampling Plans :Attributes
Sampling Plan
Sequential Sampling Plan Graph
Sample Risks and Parameters

Producer’s and Consumer’s Risk


Producer’s Risk (Type I Error)

• The producer’s risk α is the probability that a “good”


lot will be rejected by the sampling plan.

• Risk is fixed at 0.05 (5%); in other plans, it varies from


about 0.01 to 0.10.

• The risk is stated in conjunction with a numerical


definition of the maximum quality level that may pass
through the plan, often called the acceptable quality
level.
Sample Risks and Parameters

Producer’s and Consumer’s Risk


Consumer’s Risk (Type II Error)

• The consumer’s risk β is the probability that a


“bad” lot will be accepted by the sampling
plan.

• The risk is stated in conjunction with a


numerical definition of rejectable quality such
as lot tolerance percent defective.
Sample Risks and Parameters

Operating Characteristic (OC) Curve

• The operating characteristic (OC) curve is a graph of lot fraction


defective versus the probability that the sampling plan will accept
the lot.
Sample Risks and Parameters

Operating Characteristic (OC) Curve


Sample Risks and Parameters

Operating Characteristic (OC) Curve


• When the sample size approaches the lot size or, in fact,
approaches a large percentage of the lot size, and the acceptance
number is chosen appropriately, the OC curve approaches the
perfect OC curve (the rectangle at p1).

• When the acceptance number is zero, the OC curve is exponential


in shape, concave upward (see curves 2 and 3).

• As the acceptance number increases, the OC curve is pushed up,


so to speak, for low values of p, and the probability of acceptance
for these quality levels is increased, with a point of inflection at
some larger value of p (see curve 1).
• Increasing the sample size and the acceptance number together
gives the closest approach to the perfect discrimination OC curve
(see curve 1).
Sample Risks and Parameters

AQL, LTPD, ASN, AOQ, AOQL, and ATI


Acceptance Quality Level (AQL)
• It is the percentage of defects at which a consumer (buyer) is
willing to accept lots as “good.”

• A sampling plan should have a low producer’s risk for quality which
is equal to or better than the AQL.

Low Tolerance Percent Defective (LTPD)


• It is the percentage just larger than the upper limit of the
percentage of defectives of a lot that a consumer is willing to
accept.

• Is the level of quality that is unsatisfactory and therefore should


be rejected by the sampling plan.
Sample Risks and Parameters

AQL, LTPD, ASN, AOQ, AOQL, and ATI


Average Sample Number (ASN)
• It is the average number of units inspected per lot in sampling
inspection, ignoring any 100 percent inspection of rejected lots.

• In single-sampling inspection the ASN is equal to n, the sample


size.

• For a double-sampling plan with sample sizes n1 and n2, the


average sample number, ASN is simply
Sample Risks and Parameters

AQL, LTPD, ASN, AOQ, AOQL, and ATI


Average Outgoing Quality (AOQ)
• AOQ is the average quality in terms of fraction or % defectives for
inspection operations.

• It is the expressed proportion of defects that the plan will allow to


pass.

• The equation for AQL is


Sample Risks and Parameters

AQL, LTPD, ASN, AOQ, AOQL, and ATI


Average Outgoing Quality Limit (AOQL)
• The maximum value of the average outgoing
quality over all possible values of the
proportion defective.

• If AOQL seems too high, the parameters of the


plan must be modified until an acceptable
AOQL is achieved.
Sample Risks and Parameters

AQL, LTPD, ASN, AOQ, AOQL, and ATI


Average Total Inspection (ATI)
• The average total inspection represents the average number of
units that will be inspected for a particular incoming quality level
and probability of acceptance.

ATI = n + (1- Pa) (N-n)

where:
Pa = Probability of accepting a lot
n = sample size
N = Lot size
References:
“Acceptance Sampling.”
<http://www.slideshare.net/DevikaAntharjanam/3-acceptance-
sampling>. 20 August 2014.

“Acceptance Sampling online tutorial.”


<http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/9434/9660836/online
_tutorials/heizer10e_tut2.pdf>. 20 August 2014.

“Basic Principles of Acceptance Sampling.”


<http://elearning.vtu.ac.in/10/enotes/06IPIM65/Mod20-VBS.pdf>. 20
August 2014.

Juran Joseph M. and Godfrey A. Blanton. 1998.“Juran’s Quality


Handbook.” 5th ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.
Sec.46.

Quality AS. <http://www.utdallas.edu/~metin/Ba3352/QualityAS.pdf>.


20 August 2014.