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The term biodiversity is made up of two words - bio and diversity.

Bio means living and diversity means variety. So the variety or
variability of organisms and ecosystem is referred to as biodiversity.
Kinds of biodiversity

Genetic Diversity
Variations among the genes of the same species are known as
genetic diversity.
It is this type of diversity that gives rise to the different varieties of
rice, mangoes etc.
Genetic diversity of rice in India

• As per the estimation of experts on rice, India was

home to 400,000 varieties of rice during the Vedic

• Even today, 200,000 varieties of rice exist here.

• This clearly shows the genetic diversity within one

Species Diversity
Diversity which arises due to variations among species
present in specific areas is called as ‘species diversity’.
Horses and donkeys are distinct species, as are lions and

Ecosystem Diversity
Ecosystem diversity is therefore, the diversity of habitats
which include the different life forms within. The term also
refers to the variety of ecosystems found within a
biogeographical political boundary.
Value of biodiversity


Health and

Productive Value Ethical and Aesthetic Value

Hot spots of Biodiversity
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic
region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity
that is under threat from humans

These have been identified based on three criteria:–

i) The number of species present.

ii) The number of those species found exclusively
in an ecosystem.
iii) The degree of threat they face.
Hot Spots of India
Three regions that satisfy these criteria exist in India

The Western Ghats

The Eastern Himalayas


Sundalands–Nicobar Group of Islands

Endangered species

Plant or animal species which are at the verge of their extinction

are called endangered species.

Flying squirrel, Gir lion, Crocodile, Flamingo, Wild ass, Desert

cat, desert fox, Asiatic elephant etc. are some endangered
animal species of India.
Endangered black buck

• The black buck is also known as kala hiran in India.

• Earlier, it was found all over India except in the north-eastern regions of the
• Due to large scale-poaching and destruction of habitat, its existence now
restricted in some parts of Punjab, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal and
• The black buck does not require dense forests, even it is usually found in
open plains in herds. So, open plains need to be conserved in order to
enable the black buck to move freely.
• Recently, the film actor Salman khan was sentenced to 5 yrs imprisonment
for shooting black bucks.
Endangered plant and animal species of India
Endemic Species

The plant or animal species confined to a particular region and

having originated there or a species which occur continuously
in that area are known as endemic species. Restriction of
species or taxa in small region is known as endemism.. Eletaria
repens, Ficus religiosa, Butea monosperma, Ficus bengalensis,
etc. are some of the endemic plants of India.
Edge species
Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally
Endangered (EDGE) species represent a
disproportionate amount of unique
evolutionary history. They have few close
relatives, are often the only surviving member
of their genus, and sometimes the last
surviving genus of their evolutionary family.
Some EDGE species, such as elephants and
pandas, are well known.
What is biodiversity and why is it important

Levels of biological diversity: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity.

Global biodiversity hot spots

Madagascar -‐ Biodiversity Hot Spot

Values of biodiversity.

Endangered and endemic species of India
Which one of the following areas in India, is a hotspot of biodiversity?
a) Sunderbans b) western ghats c) eastern ghats d) both a and b

Levels of biodiversity include all but one:

(a) Genetics (b) Species (c) Population (d) Ecosystem

Endemic species are

a) Rare species b) species localized in specific region
c) endangered species d) none of these

The most important reason for decrease in biodiversity is:

a) habitat destruction b) deforestation
c) hunting d) All of these

The reason for certain animals getting endangered are

a) Hunting b) Environmental pollution
c) Natural calamities d) All of these
Threats to biodiversity
Biodiversity: Importance and Threats

Poaching of wildlife

Man-wildlife conflicts

Biological invasions
Conservation of Biodiversity
In situ Conservation: Protection of species in their natural habitat.
•National parks

•Wildlife sanctuaries

•Biosphere reserves

Ex situ Conservation: Protection in a place away from their natural habitat.

•Gene banks: seed banks, sperm and ova banks

•Botanical gardens


•Tissue culture technique

•DNA technology
In situ conservation – In situ means the natural or the
original place.
In situ conservation includes
National parks, Wildlife sanctuaries, Biosphere reserves,
National Parks in India
• National Parks: A national park conserves the environment
and natural objects and wildlife therein. National parks are
areas dedicated to conserve wild animals and natural scenery
of the environment. All private rights are non existent and all
forestry operations and other activities such as grazing of
domestic animals is prohibited. No human inhabitation is
allowed in the park apart from on duty public servants and
people allowed by chief wildlife warden. There are 90 parks in
India. It comprises the core zone.
 Wildlife Sanctuary: A wildlife sanctuary is an area specially
designated where it is illegal to interfere in anyway with the
natural life there. Hunting, shooting and fishing would be

sanctuary is a place where killing or capturing of any animal is

prohibited except under orders of the authorities concerned.
they provide protection and optimum living conditions to wild

 A wildlife sanctuary is dedicated the wildlife but it considers

the conservation of species only in addition , its boundary is
not limited by state legislation. In India there are about 492
wildlife sanctuaries.
Objectives Features Zone

National Conservation of No person resides in Core

Parks species of a habitat the park other than
with minimal or very public servants on duty
low intensity of and persons permitted
human activities by the chief wildlife
Wildlife Conservation of No person resides in Core, Buffer
Sanctuary species and habitats the park other than and
by manipulative public servants on duty Restoration
management and persons permitted
by the chief wildlife

Biosphere Conservation of Both natural and Core,

Reserves natural resources human-influenced Buffer,
and the improvement ecosystems; substantial Restoration
of the relationship human settlement and
between humans and Transition
the environment
 Biosphere reserve: It may be described as natural
areas that are generally used for scientific study a list of
biosphere in India are core, buffer, restoration and culture
transition zones.

zones in biosphere reserves

16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt 26
Core zone:- Undisturbed and legally protected
Buffer zone:- It surrounds the core area and it’s
dedicated to research and educational activity
Transition zone:- Outer most region where
inhabitation, agriculture, recreational activity occur.

Note: Important to remember these three zones

Advantages of in situ conservation:

• Long term protection

• Better opportunity for conservation

as well as evolution

• Cheaper

Limitations of in situ conservation:

• Proper protection against

environmental pollution may
not be enough in natural types
of ecosystems
Ex situ conservation – In this technique, plant and animal
species are conserved outside their natural habitats. Ex situ
conservation is the chief mode of preservation of genetic
resources. This can be done through establishment of gene
banks, zoos, botanical gardens, culture collections, etc.
Gene Bank: Gene banks also known as
germplasm banks are established for ex
situ conservation. Seeds pollen grains and
other vegetative propagating parts of
various endangered plants can be
preserved in these gene bank under viable

16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt 30

 Botanical Gardens: Botanical gardens are
used for the conservation of rare and endangered
plant species for study and research of specific
plant characters and for disseminating scientific
information and experiences to promote
sustainable development.

 Aquaria: The aquaria are mainly used for

the capative propagation of threatened of
endangered fresh water species

16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt 31

 Tissue Culture Technique: Tissue culture
refers to a special technique used for
asexual propagation in plants a very small
piece of shoot apex ,leaf section or even
an individual cell is cut and placed in a
sterile culture in a test tube, petri dish.

 DNA technology: DNA of plant or animal

cell or a part of it to be conserved. DNA
technology can provide an innovative and
effective approach for biodiversity

16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt 32

tissue culture techniques
16 June 2010 Biodiversity.ppt 33
Advantages of ex situ conservation

• Long-term conservation

• The species survive longer and may breed more offspring

than usual

• The quality of offspring may be improved by genetic

techniques if so required.

• Breeding of hybrid species is possible.

Limitations of ex situ conservation

• Not a viable option for protection of rare species due to

human interference

• Can be adopted for only a few kinds of species

• Overprotection may result in loss of natural occurrence.

Threats to biodiversity: Habitat loss

Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and ex-situ conservation of


ex-situ conservation

In-situ conservation
Zoogeographical regions of India

On the type of fauna, India has been divided into following

zoogeographical regions:–

Himalayan Region

Malabar Region

Nilgiri Region

Northern Plains

Desert Lands

Deccan Plateau Region

India – A Megadiversity nation

India is one of the four mega diversity nations of Asia

Geographical diversity
Climatic diversity
Habitat diversity
Cultural diversity
Phytogeographical regions of India
The Western Himalayas

The Eastern Himalayas

Western Deserts

Gangetic Plains

Central India

Western Coast

Deccan Plateau

North-East India

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

India as a mega diversity nation

Biogeographic zones of India
Endangered species can be preserved by
a) Gene pool b) Gene bank c) Gene library
d) Harbarium

Conservation of biodiversity outside the natural habitat is called as:

(a) Ex-situ (b) In-situ (c) Conservation (d) In-vivo

Conservation of biodiversity inside the natural habitat is called as:

(a) Ex-situ (b) In-situ (c) Conservation (d) In-vivo

Which one of the following is example ex-situ conservation?

a) National Park b) seed bank c) Wildlife sanctuary d) none

Which one of the following is not included under in situ conservation?

a) Wildlife sanctuary b) National Park c) Zoological gardens
d) biosphere reserve