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MEAT AND MEAT

PRODUCTS
ARMAN N. BERMON
MEAT

 MEATis an important food in the diet and is the


foremost food of the people of the world
 The
extensive use of meat is deu to its
PALATABILITY and HIGH NUTRITIVE VALUE.
 Theterm meat is used to designate only those
portions of the various animals use for food like
 Muscle
 Fatty tissues
 Some glands such as
 Liver
 Heart and
 spleen
Zoological classes of animals from
which meat is obtained are
 Mammalia - e.g Cattle, Carabaos, Sheep,
Swine or Pigs and other similar four-footed
animals.
 Aves – e.g Fowls and birds
 Pisces – e.g Fishes
 Reptilia – e.g Turtules
 Amphibia – e.g Frogs
 Mollusca – e.g Oysters and Clams
 Crustacea – e.g Lobsters and Crabs
GRADING OF MEAT

After the meat has been inspected by


authorized VETERINARIAN and is
declared WHOLESOME, HYGIENIC and
FIT for human consumption, then it is
graded
 In1970 the Breau of Standards ( Philippines)
had meat grades standardized and prepared
as.
 Excellent
 Superior
 Good and
 Unclassified
GRADING SCHEME FOR
MANUFACTURING –MEAT OF BEEF
THE BASIS FOR GRADING OF
MEAT
 Quality – includes tenderness, juiciness and
palatability.
 Conformation – refers to the shape, forms or
general outline of the side or the whole
carcass.
 Finish – refers to the amount, quality and
color of the fat within and around the
muscle.
STRUCTRE OF MEAT

A piece of meat usually consist of


 Lean Tissue
 Fatty Tissue
 Connective Tissue and
 Bone
LEAN TISSUE OR THE LEAN
MEAT
 Consist of muscular tissue and lesser amount of
connective tissues.
 Muscle fiber size has much to do with the grain or
texture of the meat.
 Fine grain, smooth texture, smooth and soft
surface indicates tender meat.
 Young animals have finer-grained flesh than mature
animals.
CONNECTIVE TISSUES
 The type and quantity of connective tissue in meat
also affect tenderness.
 Two types of connective tissue:
 1. White collagen – it is change into gelatin and water
by moist heat.
 2. Yellow elastin – it is not change by cooking, to make
it tender, it is broken up by grinding, pounding and
cubing.
FATS
 Fats in meat occur in the adipose tissue as
visible fat.
 Intramuscular fat- it is present in
intermediate amounts between the muscle.
 Intracellular fat – minor amount inside the
muscle cell.
 Marbling – in sufficient quantity and visible
present of intracellular fat.
 Fats in meat are important because they
contribute to tenderness, juiciness and
flavor.
The fat in meat gives the body energy
and warmth.
BONE

 The bone is an essential part of the gross


structure of the meat.
 Conditioning of the bone is an indication of
the age of the animal.
 In young animals, the backbone is soft and
has reddish tinge.
 In fully mature animals, the bones are hard
and white.
A high proportion of bone to meat increases the cost
of meat.
 Thecarcass with a high proportion of meat to bone is
the more desirable.
 The shape of the bone is an excellent guide for
identifying various cuts of meat.
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MEAT
 Meat is a very valuable food. It is rich source of high quality
protein needed for building and repairing worn-out body
tissue.
 It contains rich supply amount of:
1. Phosphorous
2. Copper
3. Iron
4. Vitamin B
5. Thiamin
6. Riboflavin and
7. Niacin
MEAT VARIETY AND INTERNAL ORGANS

 Brain
 Sweet breads
 Liver
 Spleen and
 Intestines - are equally as nutritious as the
lean meat.
 Liver is a good source of iron which is
needed to make the blood red.
CLASSES OF MEAT

 BEEF CARCASSES are classified on the the basis of


age and sex.
1. Stear - a male cow, castrated when young.
2. Heiferr – a young female which has not borne a
calf.
3. Cow – a female that has not borne a calf.
4. Stag – a male castrated after maturity and
5. Bull - a mature male not castrated.
 CARABEEF – is carabao meat, it is widely
eaten by Filipinos it is still sold and passed of
as a beef.
 VEAL – meat from immature animals of the
bovine species, best veal carcass usually from
4 to 8 weeks of age of either sex.
 PORK – meat of swine, good quality pork
comes from young animals 7 to 12 months of
age.
 LAMB AND MUTTON – are sheep carcasses classified according to the age of
animals.
 LAMB MEAT - taken from young animals one year or less of age.
 MUTTON - is derived from those that have passed the lamb stage
the flesh of all carcasses in the mutton class is darker in
color, less tender and stronger-smelling than the lamb.
 GOATS MEAT – quite popular in some parts of the Philippines
particularly in the Ilocos Region, it is taken as “ Pulutan” with
basi or Tuba by men who drink during their leisure
hours or after work in the farm.
 RABBITS MEAT – come from rabbits that should be 3 to 4 months old before
they are slaughtered for food. At this age a large breed of rabbit
weight about ½ to 2 kg. older stocks are heavier and make good
material for roasted meat, in the Philippines rabbits are known as
pets not certainly for eating.
MARKET FORMS OF MEAT

Fresh Meat – not undergone chilling,


freezing, or any processing treatment.
Chilled Meat – has been cooled to a
temperature range of 1 to 3˚C (34˚ to 36˚F)
within 24 hours after slaughter. Chilled
meat has been chilled and then frozen.
Cured Meat – preserved meat acted
upon by curing agents such as:
Salt
Sodium nitrate
Sugar
Spices
Vinegar without refrigeration.
 Examples of cured meat:
Sausage
Hot dog
Longganisa
Tocino
Bacon
Corned beef
Tapa
 Canned Meat – is cooked and required only to be reheated.
Example: Corned beef, Adobo, Liver spread and other
meat recipes.
 Dried Meat – also known as dehydrated meat, dried meat is
also cured, e.g Tapa
MEAT CUTS
 Slaughter animal is called  Tender cuts
CARCASS  Less tender cuts
 WHOLESALE cuts cut into  Tough cuts
larger pieces called.
 Varity cuts
 RETAIL cuts – commonly
found in the market,
classified as
 Tender cuts – contains lean meat and a little
collagen, these are the least exercised parts
of the animal and are the most expensive.
The most tender muscle in both beef and
pork is the psoas.
Tender cuts of beef are: whole loin or
kadera yields Loin end, short loin, sirloin
and the tender loin.
Tender cuts of pork are: Loin or Lomo which
sliced is called pork chops, other tender
cuts of pork includes ham and side bacon or
belly.
LESS TENDER CUTS

 There are more developed connective tissues


in less tender cuts than the tender cuts.
 Considerable portions are present in the
shoulder and neck of the animals.
 Moist heat method of cookery is necessary to
gelatinize the connective tissue.
 In pork carcass the shoulder, boston butt,
picnic and neck bones are the less tender cuts.
 In beef carcass the round, rump and chuck are
the less tender cuts.
TOUGH CUTS
 Tough cuts are usually those muscles which get more
exercise while the animal is alive.
 Usually located in the lower part of the animal.
 Muscle that are exercised a lot contains higher
quantities of connective tissues.
 Really hard-working muscles such as shoulder (or
chuck) and neck.
 Beef tough cuts are the shank, flank, plate, brisket
and neck.
 There are no tough cuts in the pork carcass.
VARIETY CUTS
 Variety cuts are the animal glands and other internal organs.
 Example of variety cuts are:
 Liver
 Kidney
 Tripes
 Sweetbreads
 Brains
 Lungs
 Tongue
 Tail
 Blood
 skin
 variety meat should be cooked until well-done to
minimize the danger of transmitting the organism
found in them.
MEAT CUTS OF BEEF AND CARABEEF
The chuck or paypay contains the square-cuts
shoulder and the top five ribs, the arm, the blade
bone, and the neckbones.
The brisket or punta y pecho has layers of lean
and fat and pieces of breast bone.
The ribs or costillas includes 6 to 12 ribs and the
blade bones.
The plate or tadyang is a fatty cut whose meat is
ground for hamburger.
The short loin solomillo consist of the backbone
and sometimes the last rib. This is cut that yields
the beef steak.
 The flank or kamto is lean and tough it contains a high
percentage of fat.
 The loin end or tagilirang hulihan lies between the rump
and the short loin and yields serloin steaks, pin bones,
wedge bones and flat bones.
 The rump or tapadera is the rear part behind the upper
sirloin.
 The round or pierna costa is oval shaped with a small
round bone and a high proportion of lean and fat roast cut.
 The sirloin tip or kadera is from the bottom and round and
the lower sirloin.
 The foreshank or kenchi or pata is very bony piece that
contains a high percentage of cartilage and connective
tissues.
PORK CUTS

 Jowlor kalamnan – is the loose flesh about the


lower jaw or throat with a high percentage of fat.
 BostonButt or paypay is ct from the upper
shoulder has a compact shape and is easy to slice.
 The
loin or lomo is a long cut that extends along the
backbone of the animal. This may be cut into
smaller loin roasts known locally as costillas.
The picnic or kasim is cut from the
lower portion of the shoulder of the
animal that has more bone in proportion
to lean meat.
The bacon side or liyempo is cut from
the belly portion of the long carcass,
usually cured and sold in slices or slabs.
The ham or pigi is composed of the butt
or shank end. It contains a higher
proportion of lean to bone.
The spare ribs or Buto sa tadyang is taken
from the belly portion of the animal, it
contains a large proportion of bones.
The shanks (foreshank and hind shank) or
pata are the pig’s legs, considered by the
Filipinos as a delicacy, they contain a high