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Trends in Language Teaching

Phase 1 traditional approaches (up to the

late 1960s)

Phase 2 classic communicative language

teaching (1970s to 1990s)

current communicative language

Phase 3 teaching (late 1990s to the
Current Communicative Language Teaching.

Describes a set of Communicative

Why is it syllabus&
very general
principles implicated??? methodology
The classroom is a Second language
community where learning-learners are
learners learn through engaged in
collaboration and interaction&
sharing meaningful opportunities for students- Meaningful
communication. negotiate meaning, expand communication results
their language resources, from students
notice how language is processing content
used, and take part in that is relevant,
The role of the teacher -creates a meaningful intrapersonal purposeful, interesting
classroom climate conducive to exchange and engaging
language learning,provides
opportunities for students to use,
practice the language,to reflect on
language use and language
Core Assumptions
learning Communication is a holistic
of current
communicative process that calls upon the
language teaching use of several language
skills or modalities
Successful language
learning involves the use of
effective learning and
communication strategies Language learning is
Language learning, facilitated by activities that
process that involve inductive or
Learners develop their own involves creative use discovery learning of
routes to language learning, of language and trial underlying rules of language
progress at different rates, and error. use and organization, as well
have different needs and
as by those involving
motivations for language
language analysis and
Communicative competence obviously does not mean the
wholesale rejection of familiar materials. There is nothing to
prevent communicatively-based materials from being subjected to
grammar-translation treatment.

CLT can be seen as describing a set of core What matters is the teacher’s conception
principles about language learning and
CONCLUSION of what learning a language is and how it
teaching. happens.

The basic principle involved is an orientation towards collective

participation in a process of use and discovery achieved by cooperation
between individual learners as well as between learners and teachers.
Shaping a Communicative Curriculum

begins with discovery of learner In an ESL setting, opportunities to use English

interests and needs and of outside the classroom abound. Systematic

Classroom visits to a courtroom trial, a
“field experiences” may successfully become
opportunities to not only respond to public auction, or a church bazaar
the core of the course, which then could
but, more importantly, to develop provide introductions to aspects of the
become a workshop in which learners can
those interests and needs through local culture that learners might not
compare notes, seek clarification, and expand
experience on their own.
English language use beyond the the range of domains in which they learn to
classroom itself. function in English.