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# Electrical Machines

LSEGG216A
9080V
Transformer
Losses & Efficiency

Week 3
Objectives
1. Describe the power losses which occur in a transformer

## 2. Describe the tests which allow the power losses of a

transformer to be calculated

## 4. Define the all day efficiency of a transformer

5. Calculate the all day efficiency of a transformer

## 6. Describe the relationship between transformer cooling and

rating
Objectives
5. Calculate the all day efficiency of a transformer

## 6. Describe the relationship between transformer

cooling and rating

## 9. Describe the tests conducted on transformer oil

Transformer Ratings
Transformers are rated to supply a given output in

Volt Amps
or

VA
at a specified frequency and terminal voltage.
Transformer Ratings
They are NOT rated in Watts
The load power factor is unknown

S =V ×I
Power = S × PF
Power
S=
PF
Transformer Ratings
They are NOT rated in Watts
The load power factor is unknown
S = 2 kVA
Problem
V1 = 6,351 V2 = 230 V
V

## Power output at unity

PF ?
Power = S x PF
P = 2 kVA x 1

P = 2 kW
S = 2 kVA
Problem
V1 = 6,351 V2 = 230 V
V

## Full load secondary current at 0.8 PF ?

S
I=
V × PF
I = 10.87 A
2000
I=
230× 0.8
Student Exercise 1
S = 20 kVA

V1 = 1270 V2 = 200 V
V

## (a) Power output at unity power

factor
Power= S× PF
P = 20,000 ×1.0

P = 20 kW
S = 20 kVA

V1 = 1270 V2 = 200 V
V

## (b) Power output at 0.8 power factor

Power= S× PF
P = 20,000 × 0.8

P = 16 kW
S = 20 kVA

V1 = 1270 V2 = 200 V
V

## (c) Full-load secondary current at unity power

factorS
I=
VxPF
20,000
I=
200x1.0
I = 100 A
S = 20 kVA

V1 = 1270 V2 = 200 V
V

## (d) Secondary current when transformer

supplies 10 kW at 0.8 power factor
S
I=
VxPF
10,000
I=
200x0.8
I = 62.5 A
Efficiency
Ratio between Input power and Output
Power
Output Power
η=
Input Power

## Output Power Input Power − Losses

η= η=
Output Power+ Losses Input Power
Efficiency
Efficiency is normally expressed as a
percentage

Output Power
η% = × 100
Input Power
Transformer
Efficiency
Power η = 100%
95%
90% Power
In Out

Overcome Overcome
Some Power Copper
is used to: Iron
Losses Losses
Student Exercise 2
S = 20 kVA

Power = S × PF
P = 100× 0.85

P = 85 W
S = 20 kVA

Out
η=
In
Out
In =
η
85W
In = P = 94.4 W
0.9
S = 20 kVA

## η = 90% V1 = 230 V V2 = 32 V PF = 0.85

(c) Losses

In − Out = Losses

P = 9.4W
Transformer
Losses
Copper Losses
(Cu)

•Produces HEAT

## •Created by resistance of windings

•Short circuit test supplies copper
losses
Short Circuit Test
Copper Losses
(Cu)
Limite
d
Supply
Voltag
e ≈ 5-
Secondary
10 %
Short
Circuited

## Wattmeter indicates Copper

Losses (Cu)
Short Circuit Test
Copper Losses
•Finds Cooper losses at full load
(Cu)
•Copper losses vary with the square of the
Full load Cu loss = 100
W
50%
Copper loss = ( 0.5) × 100
2

## Copper loss = 0.25× 100

PCu = 25 W
Copper Losses (Cu)
150
140
130
120
Cu Losses (W)

110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

Transformer Losses
•Fixed Iron Losses
•Always present
(Fe)
•Related to transformers
construction
Eddy Currents Hysteresis
Reduced by Reduced by using
laminations special steels in
laminations
Produces HEAT
Open Circuit Test
Finds Iron Losses
(Fe)

Full Secondary
Supply Open Circuit
Voltage

## Wattmeter indicates Iron

Losses (Fe)
Transformer
Efficiency
Student Exercise 3
Output Power
η% = × 100
Input Power

## LossesCu = ( load % ) × Full Load Cu Losses

2
Sout = 30 kVA Cu FL = 840 W Fe = 220 W

## Output Power Output Power

η% = × 100 η% = × 100
Input Power Output + Losses

30k
η% = × 100
30k + 0.84k + 0.22k

η% =
96.6%
Sout = 30 kVA Cu FL = 840 W Fe = 220 W

Output Power Sout = 0.75 × 30 = 22.5
η% = × 100
Output + Losses
Cu 75% = ( 0.75) × 840 = 472.5
2

22.5
η% = × 100
( )
22.5+ ( 0.75) × 0.84 + 0.22
2

22.5
η% = × 100
22.5+ 0.4725+ 0.22

η% = 97%
Sout = 30 kVA Cu FL = 840 W Fe = 220 W

Output Power Sout = 0.5 × 30 = 15
η% = × 100
Output + Losses
15
η% = × 100
( )
15+ ( 0.5) × 0.84 + 0.22
2

15
η% = × 100
15+ 0.21+ 0.22

η% = 97.21%
Sout = 30 kVA Cu FL = 840 W Fe = 220 W

Output Power
η% = × 100 Sout = 0.25 × 30 = 7.5
Output + Losses
7.5
η% = × 100
( )
7.5+ ( 0.25) × 0.84 + 0.22
2

7.5
η% = × 100
7.5+ 0.0525+ 0.22

η% = 96.49%
100% η = 96.6%
75% η = 97%
50% η = 97.21%
25% η = 96.49%
1.4

1.2
Cu η%
1.0
Losses
Losses (W)

97.00
0.8
Fe
0.6
Losses
0.4

0.2 η
0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
96.00 %

Fe = Cu =Max
η
Maximum Efficiency
Fe = Cu =
220 840 220
Fe = Cu =Max η 840

2

51.18%
Fe 0.5118 × 30
( ) × 100
2

Cu
( 0.5118× 30) + ( 0.5118) × 0.84 + 0.22
2

15.35
Fe η% = × 100
= Load 15.35 + 0.22 + 0.22
Cu
η%= 97.21%
1.4

1.2

1.0
97.00
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 96.00
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
All Day Efficiency

## • The time that the transformer has to be calculated when

determining efficiency

## • Able to determine the best transformer for the application

by its efficiency
All Day Efficiency
Transformer A

## Sout = 300 kVA Fe = 1.25 kVA Cu = 3.75 kVA

Time Period Hours Load kW kWh % Load Cu Loss Cu kWh Fe kWh Losses kWh Input kWh
1.00 6.00 5 100 500.0 33.33 0.42 2.08 6.25 8.33 508.33
6.00 7.00 1 200 200.0 66.67 1.67 1.67 1.25 2.92 202.92
7.00 8.00 1 300 300.0 100.00 3.75 3.75 1.25 5.00 305.00
8.00 9.00 1 360 360.0 120.00 5.40 5.40 1.25 6.65 366.65
9.00 12.00 3 300 900.0 100.00 3.75 11.25 3.75 15.00 915.00
12.00 14.00 2 280 560.0 93.33 3.27 6.53 2.50 9.03 569.03
14.00 18.00 4 300 1200.0 100.00 3.75 15.00 5.00 20.00 1220.00
18.00 20.00 2 360 720.0 120.00 5.40 10.80 2.50 13.30 733.30
20.00 22.00 2 280 560.0 93.33 3.27 6.53 2.50 9.03 569.03
22.00 1.00 3 200 600.0 66.67 1.67 5.00 3.75 8.75 608.75

## P out kWh = 5900.0 P in kWh = 5998.02

% Eff = 98.37
All Day Efficiency
Transformer B

## Sout = 300 kVA Fe = 2.5 kVA Cu = 2.5 kVA

Time Period Hours Load kW kWh % Load Cu Loss Cu kWh Fe kWh Losses kWh Input kWh
1.00 6.00 5 100 500.0 33.33 0.28 1.39 12.50 13.89 513.89
6.00 7.00 1 200 200.0 66.67 1.11 1.11 2.50 3.61 203.61
7.00 8.00 1 300 300.0 100.00 2.50 2.50 2.50 5.00 305.00
8.00 9.00 1 360 360.0 120.00 3.60 3.60 2.50 6.10 366.10
9.00 12.00 3 300 900.0 100.00 2.50 7.50 7.50 15.00 915.00
12.00 14.00 2 280 560.0 93.33 2.18 4.36 5.00 9.36 569.36
14.00 18.00 4 300 1200.0 100.00 2.50 10.00 10.00 20.00 1220.00
18.00 20.00 2 360 720.0 120.00 3.60 7.20 5.00 12.20 732.20
20.00 22.00 2 280 560.0 93.33 2.18 4.36 5.00 9.36 569.36
22.00 1.00 3 200 600.0 66.67 1.11 3.33 7.50 10.83 610.83

## P out kWh = 5900.0 P in kWh = 6005.34

% Eff = 98.25
Transformer Cooling
• Transformer ratings can be increased if their windings are cooled
by some external means

windings;

## Air and/or Oil

• The most common methods of circulation are

## Force and/or Natur

Transformer
Classification
• Transformers are allocated symbols which indicate the type of
cooling used
• Can consist of up to 4 letters indicating the cooling system

## The cooling medium in contact The cooling medium in contact

with the windings with the external cooling system

## Kind of Medium Circulation type Kind of Medium Circulation type

Transformer Classification
Type AN Air Natural
Dry Transformer with
Natural Air Flow
Transformer Classification
Type AF Air Forced
Dry Transformer with
Forced Air Flow
Transformer Classification
ONAN
Type

## Oil Tank Cooling Natural Oil Flow - Natural Air Flow

Transformer Classification
ONAF
Type
Oil Natural Air Forced

## Oil Tank Cooling Natural Oil Flow - Forced Air Flow

Type OFAF
Transformer Classification

## Oil Tank Cooling Forced Oil Flow – Forced Air Flow

Transformer Oil
Acts as Coolant & Insulator
• Low Viscosity
• High Flash point
• Chemically inert
• Good insulator
Transformer Oil Tests
• Dielectric Strength
• Acidity
• Power factor
• Interfacial tension
• Dissolved Gas
THE END