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Electrical Machines

LSEGG216A
9080V
Transformer
Losses & Efficiency

Week 3
Objectives
1. Describe the power losses which occur in a transformer

2. Describe the tests which allow the power losses of a


transformer to be calculated

3. Calculate transformer losses and efficiency using test results

4. Define the all day efficiency of a transformer


5. Calculate the all day efficiency of a transformer

6. Describe the relationship between transformer cooling and


rating
Objectives
5. Calculate the all day efficiency of a transformer

6. Describe the relationship between transformer


cooling and rating

7. Describe the methods of cooling

8. List the properties of transformer oil

9. Describe the tests conducted on transformer oil


Transformer Ratings
Transformers are rated to supply a given output in

Volt Amps
or

VA
at a specified frequency and terminal voltage.
Transformer Ratings
They are NOT rated in Watts
The load power factor is unknown

S =V ×I
Power = S × PF
Power
S=
PF
Transformer Ratings
They are NOT rated in Watts
The load power factor is unknown
S = 2 kVA
Problem
V1 = 6,351 V2 = 230 V
V

Power output at unity


PF ?
Power = S x PF
P = 2 kVA x 1

P = 2 kW
S = 2 kVA
Problem
V1 = 6,351 V2 = 230 V
V

Full load secondary current at 0.8 PF ?

S
I=
V × PF
I = 10.87 A
2000
I=
230× 0.8
Student Exercise 1
S = 20 kVA

V1 = 1270 V2 = 200 V
V

(a) Power output at unity power


factor
Power= S× PF
P = 20,000 ×1.0

P = 20 kW
S = 20 kVA

V1 = 1270 V2 = 200 V
V

(b) Power output at 0.8 power factor

Power= S× PF
P = 20,000 × 0.8

P = 16 kW
S = 20 kVA

V1 = 1270 V2 = 200 V
V

(c) Full-load secondary current at unity power


factorS
I=
VxPF
20,000
I=
200x1.0
I = 100 A
S = 20 kVA

V1 = 1270 V2 = 200 V
V

(d) Secondary current when transformer


supplies 10 kW at 0.8 power factor
S
I=
VxPF
10,000
I=
200x0.8
I = 62.5 A
Efficiency
Ratio between Input power and Output
Power
Output Power
η=
Input Power

Input = Output + Losses

Output Power Input Power − Losses


η= η=
Output Power+ Losses Input Power
Efficiency
Efficiency is normally expressed as a
percentage

Output Power
η% = × 100
Input Power
Transformer
Efficiency
Power η = 100%
95%
90% Power
In Out

Overcome Overcome
Some Power Copper
is used to: Iron
Losses Losses
Student Exercise 2
S = 20 kVA

η = 90% V1 = 230 V V2 = 32 V PF = 0.85

(a) Power output of transformer

Power = S × PF
P = 100× 0.85

P = 85 W
S = 20 kVA

η = 90% V1 = 230 V V2 = 32 V PF = 0.85

(b) Power input

Out
η=
In
Out
In =
η
85W
In = P = 94.4 W
0.9
S = 20 kVA

η = 90% V1 = 230 V V2 = 32 V PF = 0.85

(c) Losses

In − Out = Losses

94.4− 85= Losses

P = 9.4W
Transformer
Losses
Copper Losses
(Cu)
•Varies with load current

•Produces HEAT

•Created by resistance of windings


•Short circuit test supplies copper
losses
Short Circuit Test
Copper Losses
(Cu)
Limite
d
Supply
Voltag
e ≈ 5-
Secondary
10 %
Short
Circuited

Wattmeter indicates Copper


Losses (Cu)
Short Circuit Test
Copper Losses
•Finds Cooper losses at full load
(Cu)
•Copper losses vary with the square of the
load
Full load Cu loss = 100
W
Transformer loaded at
50%
Copper loss = ( 0.5) × 100
2

Copper loss = 0.25× 100

PCu = 25 W
Copper Losses (Cu)
150
140
130
120
Cu Losses (W)

110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

% Load
Transformer Losses
•Fixed Iron Losses
•Always present
(Fe)
•Related to transformers
construction
Eddy Currents Hysteresis
Reduced by Reduced by using
laminations special steels in
laminations
Produces HEAT
Open Circuit Test
Finds Iron Losses
(Fe)

Full Secondary
Supply Open Circuit
Voltage

Wattmeter indicates Iron


Losses (Fe)
Transformer
Efficiency
Student Exercise 3
Output Power
η% = × 100
Input Power

LossesCu = ( load % ) × Full Load Cu Losses


2
Sout = 30 kVA Cu FL = 840 W Fe = 220 W

Calculate η%at Full Load

Output Power Output Power


η% = × 100 η% = × 100
Input Power Output + Losses

30k
η% = × 100
30k + 0.84k + 0.22k

η% =
96.6%
Sout = 30 kVA Cu FL = 840 W Fe = 220 W

Calculate η%at 75%Load


Output Power Sout = 0.75 × 30 = 22.5
η% = × 100
Output + Losses
Cu 75% = ( 0.75) × 840 = 472.5
2

22.5
η% = × 100
( )
22.5+ ( 0.75) × 0.84 + 0.22
2

22.5
η% = × 100
22.5+ 0.4725+ 0.22

η% = 97%
Sout = 30 kVA Cu FL = 840 W Fe = 220 W

Calculate η%at 50%Load


Output Power Sout = 0.5 × 30 = 15
η% = × 100
Output + Losses
15
η% = × 100
( )
15+ ( 0.5) × 0.84 + 0.22
2

15
η% = × 100
15+ 0.21+ 0.22

η% = 97.21%
Sout = 30 kVA Cu FL = 840 W Fe = 220 W

Calculate η%at 25%Load


Output Power
η% = × 100 Sout = 0.25 × 30 = 7.5
Output + Losses
7.5
η% = × 100
( )
7.5+ ( 0.25) × 0.84 + 0.22
2

7.5
η% = × 100
7.5+ 0.0525+ 0.22

η% = 96.49%
100% η = 96.6%
75% η = 97%
50% η = 97.21%
25% η = 96.49%
1.4

1.2
Cu η%
1.0
Losses
Losses (W)

97.00
0.8
Fe
0.6
Losses
0.4

0.2 η
0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
96.00 %

% Load

Fe = Cu =Max
η
Maximum Efficiency
Fe = Cu =
220 840 220
= Load
Fe = Cu =Max η 840

Fe = ( Load) × Cu Load %=
2

51.18%
Fe 0.5118 × 30
= ( Load) η% =
( ) × 100
2

Cu
( 0.5118× 30) + ( 0.5118) × 0.84 + 0.22
2

15.35
Fe η% = × 100
= Load 15.35 + 0.22 + 0.22
Cu
η%= 97.21%
1.4

1.2

1.0
97.00
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 96.00
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
All Day Efficiency

• Most Transformers are connected permanently

• The time that the transformer has to be calculated when


determining efficiency

• Able to determine the best transformer for the application


by its efficiency
All Day Efficiency
Transformer A

Sout = 300 kVA Fe = 1.25 kVA Cu = 3.75 kVA


Time Period Hours Load kW kWh % Load Cu Loss Cu kWh Fe kWh Losses kWh Input kWh
1.00 6.00 5 100 500.0 33.33 0.42 2.08 6.25 8.33 508.33
6.00 7.00 1 200 200.0 66.67 1.67 1.67 1.25 2.92 202.92
7.00 8.00 1 300 300.0 100.00 3.75 3.75 1.25 5.00 305.00
8.00 9.00 1 360 360.0 120.00 5.40 5.40 1.25 6.65 366.65
9.00 12.00 3 300 900.0 100.00 3.75 11.25 3.75 15.00 915.00
12.00 14.00 2 280 560.0 93.33 3.27 6.53 2.50 9.03 569.03
14.00 18.00 4 300 1200.0 100.00 3.75 15.00 5.00 20.00 1220.00
18.00 20.00 2 360 720.0 120.00 5.40 10.80 2.50 13.30 733.30
20.00 22.00 2 280 560.0 93.33 3.27 6.53 2.50 9.03 569.03
22.00 1.00 3 200 600.0 66.67 1.67 5.00 3.75 8.75 608.75

P out kWh = 5900.0 P in kWh = 5998.02

% Eff = 98.37
All Day Efficiency
Transformer B

Sout = 300 kVA Fe = 2.5 kVA Cu = 2.5 kVA


Time Period Hours Load kW kWh % Load Cu Loss Cu kWh Fe kWh Losses kWh Input kWh
1.00 6.00 5 100 500.0 33.33 0.28 1.39 12.50 13.89 513.89
6.00 7.00 1 200 200.0 66.67 1.11 1.11 2.50 3.61 203.61
7.00 8.00 1 300 300.0 100.00 2.50 2.50 2.50 5.00 305.00
8.00 9.00 1 360 360.0 120.00 3.60 3.60 2.50 6.10 366.10
9.00 12.00 3 300 900.0 100.00 2.50 7.50 7.50 15.00 915.00
12.00 14.00 2 280 560.0 93.33 2.18 4.36 5.00 9.36 569.36
14.00 18.00 4 300 1200.0 100.00 2.50 10.00 10.00 20.00 1220.00
18.00 20.00 2 360 720.0 120.00 3.60 7.20 5.00 12.20 732.20
20.00 22.00 2 280 560.0 93.33 2.18 4.36 5.00 9.36 569.36
22.00 1.00 3 200 600.0 66.67 1.11 3.33 7.50 10.83 610.83

P out kWh = 5900.0 P in kWh = 6005.34

% Eff = 98.25
Transformer Cooling
• Transformer ratings can be increased if their windings are cooled
by some external means

• The most common cooling mediums are in direct with transformer


windings;

Air and/or Oil


• The most common methods of circulation are

Force and/or Natur


Transformer
Classification
• Transformers are allocated symbols which indicate the type of
cooling used
• Can consist of up to 4 letters indicating the cooling system

1st Letter 2nd Letter 3rd Letter 4th Letter

The cooling medium in contact The cooling medium in contact


with the windings with the external cooling system

Kind of Medium Circulation type Kind of Medium Circulation type


Transformer Classification
Type AN Air Natural
Dry Transformer with
Natural Air Flow
Transformer Classification
Type AF Air Forced
Dry Transformer with
Forced Air Flow
Transformer Classification
ONAN
Type

Oil Natural Air Natural

Oil Tank Cooling Natural Oil Flow - Natural Air Flow


Transformer Classification
ONAF
Type
Oil Natural Air Forced

Oil Tank Cooling Natural Oil Flow - Forced Air Flow


Type OFAF
Transformer Classification

Oil Forced Air Forced

Oil Tank Cooling Forced Oil Flow – Forced Air Flow


Transformer Oil
Acts as Coolant & Insulator
• Low Viscosity
• High Flash point
• Chemically inert
• Good insulator
Transformer Oil Tests
• Dielectric Strength
• Acidity
• Power factor
• Interfacial tension
• Dissolved Gas
THE END