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Dr Dini Sri Damayanti,MKes

• Oogenesis
– Process where ovaries form ova
– All ova female has is present at 6 months of life
– 1st meiotic division secondary oocyte and polar body
– At ovulation, 2nd meiotic division begins and completes only
if fertilized
– One ovum and 3 polar bodies
• Spermatogenesis
– Process where testes produce sperm
– Replicates into two secondary spermatocytes
– 2nd meiotic division , 4 spermatids are formed
Egg 
Sperm 

Figure 3–1a Gametogenesis involves meiosis within the ovary and testis. During meiosis each oogonium produces a single haploid
ovum once some cytoplasm moves into the polar bodies.
The average duration of the cycle of changes is 28 days,
though cycles as short as 20 days or as long as 35 days are
normal. In the average 28-day cycle, ovulation takes place
around day 14.
If the oöcyte is not fertilised, most of the endometrium is
discarded. This is accompanied by a significant amount of
blood loss through the broken blood vessels. The
endometrial tissue with the blood constitutes menstrual flow
which lasts 3 to 5 days.
Menstrual flow is the only reliable external
marker of the cyclic changes. The first day
of the flow is thus taken as “Day 1” of the
cycle, though this in fact marks the end of
the previous cycle.
 It is noteworthy that the interval between
ovulation and the next menstrual period is
rather constant around 14 days, whereas
that between day 1 and ovulation varies
according to the length of the cycle in a
paticular individual.
 Fertilisation is the union of the male and
female gametes. It is pertinent to note
that the female gamete has not completed
the second meiotic division at the time of
release from the ovary, and should be
correctly called an oöcyte. In the adjoining
picture note that its is surrounded by a
thick ‘wall’ called the zona pellucida (‘clear
zone’). This is in turn surounded by a
layer of supporting cells forming a ‘crown’,
the corona radiata. At this stage the zona
pellucida also includes the polar body Zona
formed at the end of meiosis I (not shown pellucida Corona
in this picture). radiata
 Fertilisation most commonly takes
place in the ampulla of the uterine

At the tip of the sperm

head is an enzyme-
containing structure
called acrosome.
Acrosomal enzymes allow
the sperm to ‘bore’
through the zona

The entry of one sperm causes a molecular reaction in the zona pellucida which prevents
the entry of any other sperm.
The entry of the sperm is also followed by the completion of the second meiotic division
and a second polar body is formed.
The ovum now has two ‘pronuclei’ male and female. These soon lose their nuclear
membranes and a diploid cell is formed, called the zygote.
• Preparation for fertilization
– Estrogen levels increase
– Peristalsis of fallopian tubes increases
– Cervical mucus thins to allow sperm to transfer through
• Time frame
– Ova viable for 24 hours
• True fertilization
– When nuclei of ovum and sperm unite
Figure 3–2a Sperm penetration of an ovum. The sequential steps of oocyte penetration by a sperm are depicted moving from top to
bottom. Source: Scanning electron micrograph from Nilsson, L. (1990). A child is born. New York: Dell Publishing.
• Cellular Multiplication
– Zygote moves through fallopian tube

– Rapid mitotic division – morula

– Blastocyst develops into embryo and amnion

– Trophoblast develops into chorion

• Implantation
– Attaches to surface of endometrium (process called, decidua)
– Occurs 7 – 9 days after fertilization
Figure 3–4 During ovulation, the ovum leaves the ovary and enters the fallopian tube. Fertilization generally occurs in the outer
third of the fallopian tube. Subsequent changes in the fertilized ovum from conception to implantation are depicted.
 Chorion
 Outer most membrane
 Fingerlike projections, “villi”
 Amnion
 Thin protective membrane
 Contains amniotic fluid
 As embryo grows, amnion comes in contact
with chorion and forms fluid filled sac
• Functions
– Protection, temperature regulation, permit
symmetrical growth, prevents adherence of the
amnion, gives freedom of movement
• Amounts
– Ranges from 700 – 1000cc’s at term
• Yolk Sac
– Second cavity developed at 8 –9 days
– Forms primitive RBC’s during 1st 6 weeks

• Umbilical Cord
– Formed from the amnion; attaches the embryo to the yolk sac
– Three vessels – two arteries and one vein
– Wharton’s jelly surrounds vessels in cord preventing cord compression

– Twisted or spiraled from fetal movement

Lack of Jelly
 Functions
 Metabolic, nutrient, and gas exchange between
embryonic and maternal circulation
 Development
 Chorionic villi – functional layer of placenta
 Anchoring villi – forms the partitions/walls called
 Branching villi – vascular system where gas exchange
takes place
(**Will be covered later)

Figure 3–11 Fetal circulation. Blood leaves the placenta and enters the fetus through the umbilical vein. After circulating through the
fetus, the blood returns to the placenta through the umbilical arteries. The ductus venosus, the foramen ovale, and the ductus
arteriosus allow the blood to bypass the fetal liver and lungs.
 Length of pregnancy
 10 lunar months or 40 weeks (Full term)
 Postconception age is 38 weeks after fertilization
 Preembryonic
 First 14 days of development
 Embryonic
 Starts on day 15 and continues through 8th week
 Most vulnerable to Teratogens
• Quality of ovum or sperm
• Adequacy of uterine environment
– If unsuitable
• Cells may die  abortion
• Growth slowed
• Teratogens “agent/substance which cause malformation”;
1-8wks most vulnerable to induced malformations
• Maternal environment
– Nutrition– 5th lunar month (20wks) to 6 months of life
– Hyperthermia– Sauna/Hot Tub during 1st trimester linked to CNS