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Difficulties which are

Not significant & which can
be overcome.
just A challenge is a difficulty
any that carries within it an
opportunity to overcome.
Foundational Challenges
• Non-Democratic Countries face the foundational challenge of making transition
to democracy & then instituting Democratic Government. This involves bringing
down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling
government & establishing a sovereign & functional state.

• Chile, Poland, China, Myanmar, Saudi Arabia, Nepal & Maoist affected areas
• India-The problem of Jammu & Kashmir affected areas & Maoist affected
Challenge of Expansion
• Most of the Established Democracies all over the world face the Challenge of
Expansion. This involves the basic principle of democratic government all the
regions, different social groups & various institutions.
Ensuring Greater Power to local Governments
Extension of federal principle.
Inclusion of women & minority groups , etc.
• Ghana, Mexico, Iraq, Sri Lanka, Ireland, Yugoslavia, US
• India increase the scope of Local institutions and state governments
Challenge of Deepening
• This challenge is faced by All the Democracies in one form or another.
Strengthening of the institutions & practices of Democracy to help people’s
participation & control.
Attempt to bring down the control & influence of the Rich.
• International Organizations, USA, Guantanamo Bay, Belgium, Pakistan &
South Africa
• India Setting up the Lokpal.
Political Reforms??

• When challenges are there, they should be faced and resolved. To

resolve challenges we need reforms. These reforms are called
'democracy reform' or' political reform'.
• Challenges have to be faced at the grass - root level that is at the State and
local level.
• Guidelines for political reforms in India are ------
To Introduce New Laws
• The laws of a country play an important role in bringing about reforms. The
laws have to be revised carefully to ensure that wrong political practices are
not encouraged. Laws alone cannot resolve challenges; democratic reforms
are to be carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and
politically conscious citizens.
Analyze The Result of the Law
• Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics.
Sometimes the results may be counterproductive. Generally, laws that seek to
ban something are not very successful in politics. Laws that give politicians
incentives to do good things have more chances of working
From Theory to Practical
• Democratic reforms should be carried out through political practice. They
should strengthen democratic practices. Political reforms are of no use if
they are not implemented. So, political reforms should be formulated, with
implementation as the focal factor.
Moving towards
Redefining Democracy
• The rulers elected by the people must take all the major decisions.
• Elections must offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the
current rulers.
• All the people should be able to compete in an election on an equal basis.
• The exercise of this choice must lead to a government limited by basic rules of the
constitution and citizens' rights.
• A democracy is not just the rule of the majority, the minority also have to be
included in decision making through dialogue.
Major Challenges to Indian Democracy Still

• India has been the largest democracy since the last six decades. It has worked
far well in blurring the line between the disadvantaged groups. But it has not
been satisfactory in its major results as it had not been successful in erasing
these evils still.
The information entered in this presentation have been satisfactorily
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