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Effects of propofol anesthesia versus sevoflurane

anesthesia on postoperative pain after radical


gastrectomy: a randomized controlled trial

Fu-hai Ji, Dan Wang, Juan Zhang, Hua-yue Liu, Ke Peng

Journal of Pain Research,


Volume 11, 2018

Dr. Raden Harum Adi Wicaksana

KSM Anestesiologi dan Terapi Intensif RSUP


Dr. Kariadi/ Fakultas Kedokteran UNDIP
Semarang
2019
ABSTRACT

• to assess whether anesthesia with propofol could help to reduce pain


Purpose after an open radical gastrectomy procedure.

• Sixty patients  scheduled to undergo a laparotomy for radical


gastrectomy were randomly assigned to either the propofol or
sevoflurane group (n=30 each).
Patients • All patients were administered a standardized multimodal analgesic
plan, including intraoperative dexmedetomidine, dexamethasone,
& and postoperative flurbiprofen axetil, as well as patient-controlled
fentanyl.
methods • Hemodynamics, pain scores, fentanyl consumption, adverse events,
and the incidence of chronic pain 1 month and 3 months following
hospital discharge were recorded.
• The propofol group showed lower pain scores, at rest and while coughing, up to 48 h
postoperatively compared to the sevoflurane group (P<0.05).
• Cumulative fentanyl consumption 0–24 h after surgery was lower for the propofol
group (364.4 ± 139.1 vs. 529.3 ± 237.9 μg; P=0.002).
Results • However, for fentanyl consumption 0–48 h, the difference between the two groups
was not significant (710.9 ± 312.8 vs. 850.9 ± 292.0 μg; P=0.078).
• There were no differences in the incidences of adverse events or chronic pain between
the groups.

• the multimodal analgesic approach reduced postoperative pain after an open radical
gastrectomy procedure in all patients anesthetized with either propofol or
Conclusions sevoflurane.
• Furthermore, our results indicated better analgesic outcome for the propofol group,
especially in the early postoperative period.

• anesthesia, propofol, sevoflurane, postoperative pain, gastrectomy, intravenous


Keywords anesthesia, inhalational anesthesia
INTRODUCTION
Acute postoperative pain has a strong correlation with the
severity and increased risk of chronic pain.3

After a radical gastrectomy procedure, patients often


experience acute pain due to the upper abdominal incision
and extensive surgical manipulations.

In previous study, patients have reported moderate to


severe pain and need for high fentanyl consumption.4

3. Kehlet H, Jensen TS, Woolf CJ. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention. Lancet.
2006;367(9522):1618–1625.
4. Wang Y, Xu X, Liu H, Ji F. Effects of dexmedetomidine on patients undergoing radical gastrectomy. J Surg
Res. 2015;194(1):147–153.
There are contrasting reports regarding the benefits
of propofol: while some studies noted a significant
reduction in postoperative pain.5

In a recent meta-analysis, no significant differences


between propofol and inhalational anesthesia
(isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane) were
identified in postoperative pain control.

5. Chan AC, Qiu Q, Choi SW, et al. Effects of intra-operative total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol versus inhalational anaesthesia with
sevoflurane on post-operative pain in liver surgery: a retrospective case-control study. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0149753.
PURPOSE

To compare the benefits of propofol and sevoflurane


in postoperative pain control and analgesic
consumption in patients after a radical gastrectomy.

In addition, the study also reports the incidence of


chronic pain during a follow-up of 1 and 3 months
after discharge from hospital.
PATIENTS AND METHODS

• The study has been registered at www.chictr.org.cn


(ChiCTRIOR-15006472), and approval from the institutional
review board of the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow
University (Approval No. 2015-225) was obtained.
• The adherence to the updated guidelines for reporting
parallel group randomized trials according to CONSORT 2010
is ensured.
Patients • All patients received instructions a priori regarding the use
of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and the verbal analog
scale (VAS) for pain assessment (0=no pain, 10=extreme
pain).
• Using a computer-generated random table, patients were
assigned to either of the two study groups (propofol or
sevoflurane).
Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
• The study included • uncontrolled
patients (aged 18–65 hypertension
years) • ASA≥III
• American Society of • body mass index
Anesthesiologists (ASA) (BMI)>35 kg/m2
physical status I–II • cardiopulmonary disease
• scheduled to undergo an • renal or liver disease
open radical gastrectomy
• pregnancy, chronic pain
procedure
• current use of opioids
• obtaining written
informed consent. • allergies to medications
• need for reoperation.
• To induce general anesthesia, propofol 2 mg/kg (Diprivan,
AstraZeneca, Italy) and fentanyl 3 μg/kg (RenFu Medicine,
China) were used.
• Cisatracurium 0.2 mg/kg (HengRui Medicine) was
administered for tracheal intubation and an additional
bolus of 0.1 mg/kg was used for intraoperative muscle
relaxation.
• Following intubation, the lungs were mechanically
ventilated with 80% oxygen in air to maintain the end-
tidal CO2 at 30–40 mmHg.
• Patients in the propofol group received a target-
Protocol controlled infusion of propofol (2–4 μg/mL), and those in
the sevoflurane group (HengRui Medicine) received
sevoflurane inhalation (1–3%).
• Anesthesia depth was titrated to BIS 40–60. After
anesthetic induction, dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg;
HengRui Medicine) was administered slowly for 30 min.
• Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were
maintained within 20% of baseline values
• All patients received dexamethasone 10 mg and
ondansetron 8 mg at the end of surgery for prophylaxis of
postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV).
At skin closure, a PCA containing fentanyl (20 μg/kg) in 100 mL saline was started, with a
background infusion of 1 mL/h and a bolus dose of 2 mL for a lockout time of 10 min.

Following extubation, patients were transferred to a post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and
monitored for 90 min.

All patients received flurbiprofen axetil 50 mg intraoperatively and every 12 h for the next two
days in the ward.

All patients were encouraged to self-administer fentanyl through the PCA device for pain relief.

An additional bolus of fentanyl 1 μg/kg was given for rescue analgesia. No use of other opioids
was permitted throughout the study.

Dosages of analgesics were standardized for all the participants.

HR and MAP were recorded at seven time points: baseline, skin closure, after extubation, PACU
discharge, as well as at 2, 4, and 12 h postoperatively.

Fentanyl use was recorded at three time points: 4, 24, and 48 h postoperatively.

VAS scores at rest and while coughing were recorded at six time points: extubation, PACU
discharge, and at 4, 12, 24, and 48 h postoperatively.
The secondary outcomes
The primary outcome of were scoring based on VAS,
interest for this study was incidences of adverse events,
postoperative fentanyl use. and patients’ perception of
chronic pain postoperatively.
CONSORT
flow diagram
STATISTICS

Sample size was calculated using PASS software (version 11.0.7;


NCSS, Kaysville, UT, USA).

It was estimated that it was necessary to enroll 26 patients for the


present study under each group to demonstrate a 25% reduction
in fentanyl consumption with an α value of 0.05 and 80% power.

We enrolled 38 patients under each group to account for the


possibility of a 30% dropout.
Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 19.0; IBM, Armonk, NY, USA).

The Kolmogorov– Smirnov test was used to evaluate the normal distribution of continuous data.

Normally distributed variables such as age, BMI, duration of surgery, time to extubation, PACU stay,
intraoperative fentanyl use, fluids infused, blood loss, urine output, MAP, HR, and cumulative fentanyl
consumption were presented as mean (SD) and compared using an independent samples t-test.

Non-normally distributed variables such as VAS scores, ephedrine or atropine use, and need for rescue
analgesics were presented as median (interquartile range [IQR]) and compared using a Mann–Whitney
U-test or Friedman’s test.

Gender, ASA class, comorbidities, chronic pain, and adverse events were compared using Pearson’s chi-
squared test or Fisher’s exact test.

P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.


RESULTS
Patient demographics and surgical characteristics are shown in Table 1.
There were no significant
differences in HR or MAP
between the groups at any
other time point
VAS scores at rest and while coughing were
significantly lower at all time points compared to
the sevoflurane group (P<0.05)
VAS scores at rest and
while coughing were
significantly lower at
all time points
compared to the
sevoflurane group
(P<0.05)
There were no differences in the use of rescue analgesia,
length of hospital stays, adverse events, or chronic pain
between the propofol and sevoflurane groups
DISCUSSION

This study reports that pain was greatly reduced in


all patients anesthetized with either propofol or
sevoflurane in a radical gastrectomy procedure.

Propofol was able to better reduce pain intensity


and fentanyl usage in comparison to sevoflurane,
especially in the early postoperative period.

However, the incidence of chronic pain 1 month


and 3 months after discharge did not differ
between the groups.
First meta-analysis by Qiu
In our meta-analysis
et al
• Involving 14 trials • Patients anesthetized
suggested that a with propofol reported
statistically significant lower pain scores (from
but marginal reduction 0.48 at 30 min to 0.08 at
in postoperative pain 24 h postoperatively)
scores at 24 h (mean and reduced opioid
difference of −0.134) consumption in the first
was reported after 24 h (2.68 mg of
propofol use. morphine-equivalent)
ascompared to those
anesthetized with
inhalational anesthetics.
Our multimodal analgesic approach involving a combination of
fentanyl, dexmedetomidine, dexamethasone, and nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs is thus proved to be effective in
controlling pain in patients after a radical gastrectomy.

We used intraoperative dexmedetomidine based on our


previous finding that it could reduce pain and analgesic
requirements after various surgical procedures.

In the present study, lower pain scores were reported after


radical gastrectomy in patients anesthetized with either
propofol or sevoflurane.
LIMITATIONS
A multimodal analgesic approach was used, and hence complex drug interactions among
analgesics could have resulted in improved results than each of the anesthetics might have
demonstrated individually.

The study considered only those patients who underwent radical gastrectomy, and
so the findings cannot be generalized to other types of surgeries.

An optimal dose of propofol either alone or as a multimodal analgesic was not


reported by this study. Fourth, due to its relatively small sample size, the study
may have had potential bias.

The study did not have significant power to detect differences between the groups
over a long term postoperatively, including chronic pain.

Although a reduction in postoperative pain and fentanyl consumption was noted for the
propofol group as compared to the sevoflurane group, we caution that clinical differences
may not be as much as statistical differences.
CONCLUSION

In this single-center study, pain after an open radical


gastrectomy procedure was significantly reduced in all
patients anesthetized with either propofol or sevoflurane.

The results indicated better analgesic outcome for the


propofol group especially in the early postoperative
period.

However, due to the limitation in the enrollment of


participants to this study, more evidence is required to
further establish power for our results.
Checklist
Penilaian Ya Tidak Keterangan /Alasan
Penilaian
Apakah judul tidak
terlalu panjang
√ Efektif  terdiri dari 17 kata
atau terlalu
pendek?

Apakah judul Judul merepresentasikan isi berupa


menggambarkan perbandingan efek propofol dibandingkan

isi utama dengan sevofluran dalam mengatasi nyeri
penelitian? pasca gastrektomi radikal.

Judul
Daya tarik dari judul artikel ini adalah berupa
Apakah judul suatu penelitian secara uji acak terkontrol

cukup menarik? yang memiliki Level of Evidence yang lebih
tinggi.

Apakah judul tidak


menggunakan Judul artikel penelitian ini tidak

singkatan selain menggunakan singkatan.
yang baku?
Checklist
Penilaian Ya Tidak Keterangan /Alasan
Penilaian

Apakah merupakan Abstrak artikel ini merupakan


abstrak satu abstrak terstruktur, yang terdiri
paragraf atau  dari tujuan penelitian, asien dan
abstrak metode penelitian, hasil dan
terstruktur? kesimpulan.

Apakah sudah
tercakup
Bagian abstrak artikel penelitian
komponen IMRAC
 ini sudah mencakup komponen
(Introduction,
IMRAC
Methods, result,
Abstrak conclusion)

Konten abstrak sudah informatif,


Apakah secara sebab secara representatif
keseluruhan √ sudah menggambarkan isi
abstrak informatif? artikel.
Jumlah kata pada bagian abstrak
Apakah abstrak adalah 293 kata dalam artikel
lebih dari 200 kata Bahasa Inggris. Sehingga abstrak
√ kurang baik karena lebih dari
dan kurang dari
250 kata? 250 kata.
Checklist
Penilaian Ya Tidak Keterangan /Alasan
Penilaian

Apakah
Penulisan artikel ini mengemukakan
mengemukanan alasan
√ alasan dilakukannya penelitian dengan
dilakukannya
cara review literatur.
penelitian?

Artikel ini menyatakan tujuan


penelitian pada paragraph terakhir
yaitu untuk membandingkan
Apakah menyatakan
keuntungan dari penggunaan propofol
hipotesis atau tujuan √
dan sevofluran dalam mengendalikan
penelitian?
nyeri postoperasi serta konsumsi
antinyeri pada pasien setelah
Abstrak dilakukan gastrektomi radikal.

Bagian pendahuluan artikel ini


didukung oleh 12 referensi. Empat
jurnal mengenai manajemen nyeri
postoperasi dan 7 jurnal tentang
Apakah pendahuluan
perbandingan penggunaan propofol
didukung oleh pustaka √
dan sevofluran dalam mengatasi nyeri
yang kuat dan relevan?
postoperasi.Referensi yang digunakan
adalah tahun terbitan 1998, 2006,
2008, 2010, 2014, 2015 dan yang
terbaru tahun 2016.
Apakah disebutkan desain, Ya, disebutkan desain penelitian berupa uji
tempat dan waktu acak terkontrol namun tidak disebutkan

penelitian? tempat serta waktu penelitian.

Artikel ini menyebutkan populasi terjangkau,


Apakah disebutkan yaitu semua pasien yang berusia 18-65 tahun
populasi sumber (populasi √ dengan ASA I-II yangdijadwalkan menjalani
terjangkau)? prosedur gastrektomi radikal setelah
menandatangani persetujuan tindakan.

Apakah kriteria pemilihan Artikel ini menjelaskan kriteria inkusi dan


(inklusi dan eksklusi) √ eksklusi dalam pemilihan sampel penelitian.
dijelaskan?

Teknik sampling tidak dijelaskan secara


Apakah cara memilih tertulis namu dapat diketahui teknik sampling
subyek (tekhnik sampling) √ berupa consecutive sampling dimana semua
disebutkan? yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi
Metode dimasukkan kedalam penelitian.

Pada artikel dijelaskan cara menghiting besar


sampel menggunakan software PASS versi
Apakah perkiraan besar
11..7;NCSS, Kaysville, UT, USA. Diperkirakan
sampel disebutkan dan
√ sampel yang dibutuhkan sebanyak 26 pasien,
disebutkan pula
namun untuk menghindari adanya dropout
penjelasannya?
30% maka sampel penelitianditambahkan
menjadi 38 pasien.

Apakah perkiraan sampel


Tidak disebutkan penggunaan rumus, namun
dihitung dengan rumus √
menggunakan software.
yang sesuai?

Pada penelitian ini 3 pasien mengalami


Apakah dijelaskan subyek terminasi PCA dini, 8 orang mengalami
yang drop out dengan √ perubahan prosedur intraoperative, 4 pasien
alasannya? menjalani reoperasi serta 1 pasien meninggal
setelah operasi karena perdarahan.
Apakah disertakan Pada artikel ini disertakan tabel
tabel deskripsi √ mengenai deskripsi subjek
subyek penelitian? penelitian yaitu pada tbel 1.

Apakah karektiristik
Terdapat perbandingan pada
subyek yang
setiap pasien yang diberikan
penting (data awal) √
propofol dibandingan dengan
dibandingkan
yang mendapatkan sevofluran..
kesetaraannya?

Apakah dilakukan Terdapat pengujian statistik


Hasil
uji hipotesis untuk √ dalam jurnal in yaitu
kesetaraan ini? menggunakan.

Pada hasil penelitian disebutkan


Apakah disebutkan
jumlah subyek yang diteliti
jumlah subyek yang √
hingga akhir penelitian sebanyak
diteliti?
60 pasien.

Apakah semua Semua outcome yang berkaitan


outcome yang dengan variable penelitian yang

penting disebutkan direview disebutkan dalam
dalam hasil? bagian hasil.
Apakah disertakan hasil
uji statistic (x2,t) Db Pada artikel dilakukan uji statistik dan

(degree of freedom),dan nilai disebutkan.
nilai p ?

Apakah dalam hasil


Penulis berpendapat mengenai hasil
disertakan komentar dan √
penelitian ditemukan pada bagian diskusi.
pendapat?

Semua hasil yang relevan dengan tujuan


Apakah semua hal yang penelitian melalui review literatur

relevan dibahas? ditampilkan dalam bentuk narasi dan
dibahas pada bagian hasil dan diskusi .
Apakah dibahas Artikel ini menampilkan keterbatasan
keterbatasan penelitian penelitian dan kemungkinan dampaknya
dan kemungkinan √ terhadap hasil pada bagian Limitations.
Diskusi dampaknya terhadap
hasil?
Artikel ini tidak menampilkan kesulitan
Apakah disebutkan penelitian yang direview, maupun adanya
kesulitan penelitian, penyimpangan dari protokol.
penyimpangan dari

protokol dan
kemungkinan dampaknya
terhadap hasil?

Intervensi yang telah dilakukan


Apakah observasi, dipaparkan dengan terperinci, sehingga
pengukuran serta orang lain dapat kembali mengulanginya.
intervensi dirinci √
sehingga orang lain dapat
mengulanginya?
Apakah disertakan hasil uji statistic (x2,t) Db (degree of freedom),dan
√ Pada artikel dilakukan uji statistik dan nilai disebutkan.
nilai p ?

Apakah dalam hasil disertakan komentar dan pendapat? √ Penulis berpendapat mengenai hasil penelitian ditemukan pada bagian diskusi.

Semua hasil yang relevan dengan tujuan penelitian melalui review literatur ditampilkan dalam bentuk narasi dan dibahas
Apakah semua hal yang relevan dibahas? √
pada bagian hasil dan diskusi .

Artikel ini menampilkan keterbatasan penelitian dan kemungkinan dampaknya terhadap hasil pada bagian Limitations.

Apakah dibahas keterbatasan penelitian dan kemungkinan dampaknya



terhadap hasil?

Artikel ini tidak menampilkan kesulitan penelitian yang direview, maupun adanya penyimpangan dari protokol.

Apakah disebutkan kesulitan penelitian, penyimpangan dari protokol dan



kemungkinan dampaknya terhadap hasil?

Intervensi yang telah dilakukan dipaparkan dengan terperinci, sehingga orang lain dapat kembali mengulanginya.

Diskusi

Apakah observasi, pengukuran serta intervensi dirinci sehingga orang lain



dapat mengulanginya?

Jurnal ini tidak menjelaskan istilah yang kemungkinan dapat membingungkan pembaca.

Apakah definisi istilah dan variabel penting dikemukakan? √

Persetujuan etik didapatkan dari institutional review board of the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University (Approval No. 2015-225).

Apakah ethical clearence diperoleh? √

Pada artikel dijelaskan rencana analisis, batas kemaknaan p adalah 0.05 serta kekuatan penelitian 80%.


Apakah disebutkan rencana analisis, batas kemaknaan dan power
penelitian?

Hasil penelitian dibahas pada bagian diskusi dengan menghubungkan dan membandingkannya dengan teori dan dengan
hasil yang diperoleh.

Apakah pembahasan dilakukan dengan menghubungkannya dengan



teori dan hasil penelitian terdahulu?

Terdapat skor nyeri yang lebih rendah pada pasien yang menjalani gastrektomi radikal pada kedua kelompok.

Apakah dibahas hubungan hasil dengan praktek klinis? √


Apakah Terdapat bab khusus
disertakan kesimpulan.
kesimpulan √
utama
penelitian?
Apakah Kesimpulan penelitian
kesimpulan berdasarkan pada data-data

didasarkan pada yang telah diperoleh pada
data penelitian? hasil penelitian.
Apakah Tidak disebutkan hasil
disebutkan hasil tambahan selama penelitian.

tambahan selama
Kesimpulan
diobservasi?
Apakah Hasil penelitian hanya
disebutkan diterapkan pada pasien yang

generalisasi hasil menjalani prosedur
penelitian? gastrektomi radikal.
Apakah Tidak disertakan saran
disertakan saran penelitian selanjutnya.
penelitian
selanjutnya, √
dengan anjuran
metodologis yang
tepat
Apakah hasil Hasil penelitian saling
penelitian satu berkaitan dan konsisten
dengan yang √
lainnya
Validity konsisten?
Apakah data tiap Semua data hasil penelitian
penelitian di review untuk kemudian

digunakan dalam ditarik suatu kesimpulan
analisis?
Apakah Hasil penelitian laporan
outcome/hasil kasus dipaparkan secara
Important √
dipaparkan jelas.
secara jelas?
Apakah metode Penelitian laporan kasus ini
yang diberikan memungkinkan dilakukan di
Applicability √
dapat dilakukan Indonesia.
di Indonesia?