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Tutorial Report

1st Scenario
Wivan Havilian Djohan
1418011223
Learning Objective
 1. Prevention of pesticides poisoning (5 level prevention)
 2. How to use pesticides safely and how to educate the
workers
 3. Pathophysiology : TD,TK of pesticides
 4. Health problem related to the pesticides exposure
(acute & chronic health problem
1. Prevention of pesticides poisoning (5 level prevention)

a.Health Promotion b.Specific Protection

Active strategies seek Automatically protect people


to change attitudes, by improving the safety pro
lifestyles and behaviours ducts and the environment
of individuals and groups, where they are used (by using
PPE)
c.Early diagnose and prompt d. Disability Limitation
treatment
First aid treatment, and specific
initial steps to minimize the antidote therapy, (Tertiary
effects of the toxic agent, the poisons prevention) deals with
diagnosis, decontamination the diagnosis and treatment of
 immediately drench any area poisoning victims who cannot
of skin that comes into be treated to full recovery, to
contact with the spray mix, or prevent death or permanent
especially product concentrate, disability
with water (remove clothes)
e.Rehabilitation

educating victims and their relatives


about how to make the most of the
remaining potential for healthy living,
including the avoidance of unnecessary
hardships, restrictions and complications,
i.e., rehabilitation and physiotherapy
in cases of toxic polyneuropathy.
2. How to use pesticides safely and how to
educate the workers

Using pesticides safely depends on many things. Some of the


most important factors :
include selecting the appropriate product, and using that
product according to the label directions. The label directions
are written to minimize the risk of problems and to define
the legal uses for the product.
Consider the tips for using pesticides

Make sure anyone non-essential to the application is out of area before mixing and appyinh

Be sure to wear a PPE that is required

Mix pesticides outdoors in well ventilated areas

Be prepared for a pesticide spill

Read the first aid instructions on the label before using the product

Remove personal items from the spray area to avoid contamination

When applying pesticides as a spray or dust outside, avoid windy conditions and close door/vent

After using pesticides wash your hand before do something else (eating)
Educate
 Read and make sure to understand the label
 Working on it carefully
 Treat sprayer well
 Maintain personal hygiene
 Wear personal protective equipment correctly
3. Pathophysiology : TD,TK of pesticides
Toksikodinamik
Organofosfat
ACH Mengi dan karbamat
(Asetilkolinester kat
ase) Ganglion
terham simpatikdan
bat parasimpatik,
reseptor
Asetilkolin parasimpatik,
(SSP, simpangan saraf
Peningkatan
Sarafotonom, otot, penghantar
Asetilkolin
dan Saraf sel-sel saraf, dan
somatik) medula kelenjar
terham terham suprarenal
bat bat
Aseti Koli
l n
Pesticide
Poisoning
TOKSIKOKINETIK

Absorbsi
Kulit, menelan,
menghirup, mata,
injeksi,
transplasenta

Biotransformasi
Metabolit inaktif,
atau
Metabolit yang
lebih aktif

Distribusi
Pestisida larut
lemak disimpan di
jaringan adiposa

Ekskresi
Melalui urin
Melalui feses
Melalui air susu
(ASI)
1. Absorbsi melalui kulit

Merupakan kontaminasi paling banyak dari semua kejadian keracunan


pestisida dimana > 90% kasus keracunan pestisida terjadi melalui kulit.
Ketika pestisida kontak dengan kulit secara langsung karena tidak adanya
apd atau kecelakaan, pestisida akan diabsorbsi oleh kulit dan menembus
jaringan epidermis kemudian memasuki darah dalam tubuh yang akan
menuju paru-paru serta organ vital lainnya dalam tubuh seperti otak dan
otot (Rustia,2009).
Langkah yang dilakukan :
 Cuci dengan air dan sabun
 Lepaskan pakaian yg terkontaminasi
2. Distribusi

 Diserap melalui kulit, diangkut dalam darah ke ginjal (disaring atau


diangkut dalam urin), atau tetap dalam darah.
 Terhirup, menyerap ke dalam darah melalui jaringan paru-paru, ke
jantung sebelum diangkut ke ginjal.
 Tertelan menyerap di lambung atau di usus. Kemudian diserap ke
dalam darah yang mengalir melalui hati. Di hati, terjadi
biotransformasi. Metabolit inaktif di bawa ke ginjal untuk diekskresi,
metabolit aktif masuk ke darah kembali.
 Setelah dari usus kecil ke usus besar dan dikeluarkan melalui feses
3. Biotransfomasi

 Metabolisme pestisida jenis


organofosfat akan menjadi :
 Oksida aktif
 Metabolit inaktif : yang spesifik
(ME) dan non spesifik
(dialkylphosphates, DAPs)
 DAPs merupakan biomarker
paparan pestisida Organofosfat
4. Health problem related to the pesticides exposure
(acute & chronic health problem
Chronic health problem

 Most of the chronic problems associated with either large single dose
exposures or low dose, long term exposure to several classes of
pesticides (especially organophosphates and organochlorines) are
neurologic.
 Some pesticide ingredients may be carcinogenic. Chlorophenoxy
herbicides have received a great deal of public attention because of a
possible association with non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
 Data from epidemiologic and animal studies remain inconclusive, with
substantial numbers of both positive and negative studies.
 Other chronic health problems are occasionally attributed to pesticide
exposure. Some of these claims may well be valid, but they are extremely
difficult to confirm.