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Chapter 5

Personality &
Personal ffectiveness

Prof. Sushama Khanna


What is Personality?
Personality
The sum total of ways in
which an individual reacts
and interacts with others.

Personality Traits Personality


Determinants
Enduring characteristics
• Environment
that describe an
individual’s behavior. • Heredity
• Situation
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Theories Of Personality
Psychometric Theories Of Personality
1. Sixteen Personality Factors (16 P-F) (Cattel)
2. Big Five
3. FIRO-B

Psychodynamic Theories Of Personality


1. Sigmund Freud
2. Carl Jung and MBTI
3. Transactional Analysis

Life Styles based Theories of Personality


1. Type A vs. Type B
2. Enlarging vs. Enfolding
3. Personality-Job Fit
16 PF (R.B. Cattell)
Cattell identified following 16 traits or factors out of 171
traits and developed an instrument called 16 PF to measure
personality:
1. Warmth 1. Vigilance
2. Reasoning 2. Abstractedness
3. Emotional stability
3. Private
4. Dominance
4. Apprehension
5. liveliness
5. Openness to change
6. Rule-consciusness
7. Social boldness 6. Self-reliance
8. Sensitivity 7. Perfectionism
8. Tension
Cattel suggessted bipolar dimensions of personality for above
16 factors
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16 P F

Sixteen
Personality
Factors
16 P-F
(CATTTEL)

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big five – five factor
theory of personality
Five basic dimensions of
personality are:
 Extraversion
 Agreeableness
 Conscientiousness
 Emotional Stability
 Openness to Experience
Big Five Personality Traits
Extraversion – tendency to experience positive
emotions and moods and feel good about oneself
and the rest of the world.

 Managers high in extraversion tend to be sociable,


affectionate, outgoing and friendly

 Managers low in extraversion tend to be less inclined


toward social interaction and have a less positive outlook

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Big Five Personality Traits
Agreeableness – tendency to get along well with
others

 Managers high in agreeableness are likable, affectionate


and care about others

 Managers with low agreeableness may be distrustful,


unsympathetic, uncooperative and aggressive

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Big Five Personality Traits
Conscientiousness – tendency to be careful,
careful, and persistent

Managers high in this trait are self-


disciplined, Responsible, dependable,
persistent, and organized.
Managers low in this trait lack direction
and self-discipline

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Big Five Personality Traits
Emotional Stability– tendency to experience positive
emotions and moods and feel good about oneself
and the rest of the world
 Managers high in emotional stability tend to be Calm,
self-confident and secure (positive); do not experience
many negative emotions and moods and are less
pessimistic and critical of themselves and other
 Managers low in emotional stability tend to be nervous,
depressed, and insecure (negative); may often feel angry
and dissatisfied and may complain about their own and
others’ lack of progress

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Big Five Personality Traits
Openness to Experience – tendency to be original,
have broad interests, be open to a wide range of
stimuli, be daring and take risks
 Managers who are high in openness to experience are
likely to take risks and be innovative in their planning and
decision making

 Managers who are low in this trait may be less prone to


take risks and be more conservative in their planning and
decision making

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Fundamental Interpersonal Relations
Orientation–Behavior (FIRO-B)
 Developed by William Schutz in late 1950s
 Based on theory of interpersonal relations.
 Interpersonal needs are very important to
understand and predict behaviour of human
beings.
 three main basic needs people have:
1. To give and receive affection;
2. To control others and be controlled by others
3. Need to socialize and interact with people;

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Dimensions of FIRO-B
 Three Basic Needs
 Inclusion
 Control
 Affection
 Two Modes of Behavior
 Expressed
 Wanted

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Expressed and Wanted Dimensions three
basic needs (William Schutz)

Inclusion Control Affection

Expressed Expressed Expressed Expressed


Behavior Inclusion Control Affection

Wanted Wanted Wanted Wanted


Behavior Inclusion Control Affection

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The Six-Cell Model
Three Interpersonal Needs
INCLUSION (I) CONTROL (C) AFFECTION (A)

I make an effort to I try to exert control I make an effort to get


include others in my and influence over close to people. I am
Expressed activities. I try to things. I enjoy comfortable
Needs belong, join social organizing things expressing personal
groups – to be with and directing others feelings and I try to
people as much as (0-9) be supportive of
possible (0-9) others (0-9)

I want other people to I feel most I want other to act


include me in their comfortable warmly toward me. I
Wanted activities and to invite working in clear enjoy it when people
Needs me to belong. I enjoy situations with clear share their feelings
it when others notice instructions. I prefer with me and when
me (0-9) letting others have they encourage my
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control of my efforts. (0-9)
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work(0-9)
Carl Jung & the MBTI
Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) - a personality
test, is based Carl Jung’s theory. It classifies people
into 16 personality types on the basis of four
dimensions of Personality.

Four Dimensions of Personality


Extraversion (E) vs. Introversion (I)
Sensing (S) vs. Intuiting (N)
Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F)
Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (J)

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MBTI Framework
 Source of Energy
 Outgoing: speaks, and then thinks.
 Extraversion (E) Relates more easily to the outer
world of people and things than to
the inner world of ideas.

 Introversion (I)  Reflective: thinks, and then


speaks. Relates more easily to the
inner world of ideas than to the
outer world of people.
 Collecting Information
 Sensing (S)  Practical, concrete. Would work
with known facts than look for
possibilities and relationships.
 Intuiting (N)
 Theoretical, abstract. Would look
for possibilities and relationships
than work with known facts
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MBTI Framework
 Decision Making  Analytical, head. Relates more on
 Thinking (T) interpersonal analysis and logic
than on personal values

 Feeling (F)  Subjective, heart. Relies more on


personal values than on
impersonal analysis and logic

 Understanding the world  Structured, organised. Likes a


 Judging (J) planned and orderly way of life
than a flexible spontaneous way

 Perceiving (P)  Flexible, spontaneous. Likes a


flexible, spontaneous way than a
planned and orderly way of life.

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16 Personality Types - Combination
of Four Jungian Aspects

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ


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Lifestyle Approaches
Type A and Type B
Type A’s
1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;
2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place;
3. strive to think or do two or more things at once;
4. cannot cope with leisure time;
5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms
of how many or how much of everything they acquire.

Type B’s
1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its
accompanying impatience;
2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements
or accomplishments;
3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their
superiority at any cost;
4. can relax without guilt.
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Enlarging & Enfolding
Personality Types
 Enlarging: associated with career/job success;
goals of motivation; self-improvement
/development; growth; non-traditional; moves to
influential position; likely to read, attend theatre,
keep up with current events;
 Enfolding: associated with less career/job success;
goals of tradition; stability; inner strength; values
parental ties, is not member of any social or
community gp.; does not join any program for
self- improvement/development

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reserved.
Personality-Job Fit Theory (Holland)

Personality Types
Holland Identifies six
personality types and • Realistic
proposes that each • Investigative
personality type has • Social
preference for certain • Conventional
occupations and a right • Enterprising
fit between the two
• Artistic
determines satisfaction
and turnover.
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Holland’s
Typology of
Personality
and
Congruent
Occupations

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Personal Effectiveness
Dimensions of PE
Self-Disclosure

Receiving
Perceptiveness
feedback

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JOHARI WINDOW

KNOWN TO NOT KNOWN TO


SELF SELF
KNOWN TO A B
OTHERS ARENA BLIND

NOT C D
KNOWN TO CLOSED DARK
OTHERS
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Categories of Personal Effectiveness
S. Category Self- Openness Perceptiveness
No. disclosure to feedback
1 Effective High High High
2 Insensitive High High Low
3 Egocentric High Low Low
4 Rigid High Low High
5 Secretive Low High High
6 Task obsessed Low High Low
7 Lonely- Low Low High
empathic
8 Ineffective Low Low Low
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Emotional Intelligence
 Emotional intelligence is a type of social
intelligence that involves the ability to monitor
emotions, to discriminate among them, and to
use the information to guide one’s thinking
and actions.

 It may be categorized into five domains:


1. Self-awareness
2. Managing emotions
3. Motivating oneself
4. Empathy
5. Handling relationships
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Classroom Projects
1. Form dyads (two-member groups) of
individuals who know each other quite well.
Using your understanding of the MBTI types,
guess your own and your partner’s types.
Exchange your perceptions and discuss on
what basis you formed the impressions.
2. In the same pairs, discuss what your lifestyle
is—enlarging or enfolding. How is it related to
the MBTI type you guessed about yourself?

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Field Projects
1. Interview two persons to find out their types
(Type A or Type B) and also their lifestyles
(enlarging or enfolding). Is there any
relationship between the two?
2. Interview one successful executive to find out
his or her lifestyle. Is it enlarging or
enfolding? What did you learn from the
interview?

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Back-Home Assignment
Case study – Different Strokes

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TEAM EXERCISE – UNDERSTANDING
MBTI PERSONALITY TYPES (App. 85 mins.)
 Divide the class into 8 groups of equal size.
 Give all the groups, one of the following 8 identities:
 Extraversion (E), Introversion (I), Sensing (S), Intuition (I), Thinking
(T), Feeling (F), Judging (J) and Perceiving (P)
 Give all the 8 groups following instructions:
 “Your group has 15 minutes to discuss among yourself, all the
characteristics of the identity you have taken. For example,
Extraversion (E) group will discuss characteristics related to
Extraversion; Sensing (S) group will discuss characteristics related
to Sensing and so on.”
 Next, tell the 8 groups to form 4 groups into following pairs:
 Group 1 - Extraversion (E) and Introversion (I)
 Group 2 - Sensing (S) and Intuition (I),
 Group 3 - Thinking (T) and Feeling (F),
 Group 4 - Judging (J) and Perceiving (P)

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TEAM EXERCISE – UNDERSTANDING
MBTI PERSONALITY TYPES
 Give all the 4 groups following instructions:
 “In the earlier step, all the groups discussed the characteristics of
the identity you had taken. Now your group has been paired with
your opposite type. Your group’s job is to, first share you’re your
characteristics with the other group; secondly, if put together in a
team, what difficulties you will face and how will you complement
each other to form an effective team, keeping in view
characteristics of both groups. For example, Sensing types are
practical and like to work with known facts; whereas Intuitive
types look for possibilities and overlook facts. If put together in a
team they can be complimentary to each other looking for a larger
picture, as well as, keeping in view past experiences. Consolidate all
your learnings and write them down. Your group has 15 minutes
for this.”
 Next, tell all groups to appoint a spokesperson who will share their
learning with the entire class. (10 minutes for each group)
 The entire class then has a discussion for15 minutes.

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