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PUMPS

Types of pumps
1. Roto-dynamic pumps
i. Centrifugal pump
ii. Axial flow pump
2. Displacement pumps
i. Reciprocating pump
ii. Rotary pumps
3. Other types
i. Air lift pumps
ii. Jet pumps
iii. Hydraulic rams
ROTO DYNAMIC PUMPS
• Consists of a wheel type rotating element –
Impeller.
• The shape of impeller may be such as
– To force water outward in a direction at right angles
to its axis – RADIAL FLOW.
– To give water, an axial as well as a radial velocity –
MIXED FLOW.
– To force water in the axial direction alone – AXIAL
FLOW.
• Radial and mixed flow
RADIAL FLOW machines –
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS –
commonly used.

MIXED FLOW
• Axial flow machines –
AXIAL FLOW PUMPS.

AXIAL FLOW
Centrifugal pumps
• Radial or mixed flow Impeller may be open or closed.
• Open impeller consists of a hub to which vanes are
attached.
– Efficiency is much less than that of closed impeller due to
clogging of debris.
• Closed impeller is having plates on each sides of the
vanes.
• Casing of radial flow type centrifugal pump may be
of
– Volute type
– Turbine type
Volute type centrifugal pump
• Impeller discharges into
a gradually expanding
spiral casing.
• It produces an equal
velocity around the
circumference and to
reduce the velocity of
water as it enters
discharge pipe. Thus
creating required
pressure head.
Turbine type or diffuser type
centrifugal pump
• Impeller is surrounded by
stationary guide vanes
which reduces the
velocity of water before
water enters the casing.
• The casing is generally
circular and concentric
with impeller.
• Velocity of water is more
completely converted into
pressure head
• High efficiency
Advantages of centrifugal pumps
1. Initial and maintenance cost are comparatively
low
2. Their size is compact and can be installed in
limited space
3. Their mechanism is simple. Less skilled labour is
required for its operation and repairs.
4. Can be operated with high speed electric motors,
or gas engines and steam turbines
5. Discharge is steady and non pulsating
6. Can be used for pumping water containing silt,
sand etc.,
7. Durable and safe against pressure.
Disadvantages of centrifugal pumps
• Requires priming
• For higher head, efficiency is low
• The discharge pipe has to be provided with check
valve, to avoid the backflow when the pump suddenly
stops due to power failure,etc., with the discharge
valve open.
• Discharge varies with the head of water. When uniform
discharge is required at varying heads, the pumps has
to be rotated at variable speeds which is neither,
practical nor economical.
• Their ordinary suction lift is limited(about 6m or so).
Displacement pumps – Reciprocating
pumps
• Simplest form of reciprocating
pump – Hand operated well
pump(commonly called hand
pump).
• Can be used in any depth. For
wells, where water table is
within 6m or so.
• Requires foot valve at the end
of the suction pipe to avoid
priming.
• Single acting pumps –
discharge occurs at alternative
piston strokes.
• Double acting pumps –
Delivers water at each stoke –
more uniform flow
COMPONENTS
CYLINDER - It is made of cast iron or steel alloy.
PISTON - The piston reciprocates inside the cylinder.
CONNECTING ROD - It connects piston and rotating
crank.
SUCTION PIPE- It connects the source of water and
cylinder.
DELIVERY PIPE - Water sucked by pump is discharged
through the delivery pipe.
SUCTION VALVE - It adjusts the flow from the suction
pipe into delivery pipe.
DELIVERY VALVE - It admits the flow from the cylinder
into the delivery pipe.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• High efficiency • More parts mean high
• No priming needed initial cost
• Can deliver water at high • High maintenance cost
pressure • Occupies more space.
• Can work in wide • Needs skilled
pressure range supervision during
• Continuous rate of operations
discharge if provided with • Low discharging
two pistons or more. capacity
• Pulsating flow
• High wear in parts
Displacement pumps – Rotary pumps
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• Self-priming. • Initial cost is high.
• Flow is free from • Not durable, they require
pulsations. frequent replacement of
• Simple to construct and their cams or gears.
easy to repair when • Water containing
compared to sediments are very
reciprocating pumps. injurious to such pumps,
• Often used for fire as the wear and abrasion
protection system for will destroy the seal
buildings and for small between the cams and
domestic water systems. the casing.
• Efficiency is high at low to
moderate heads and for
smaller discharges.
Submersible pump
• Driving motor is placed
below the pump bowls
within the well water level.
• The driving shaft is
completely eliminated.
Thus reducing the bearing
friction.
• The water rises to the
surface through a riser pipe
on which the assemble is
suspended.
• The electrical parts or the
motor bearing are enclosed
by a oil filled case with
mercury seal.
Air lift pumps
• Used for pumping water
from deep wells for lift of
about 60 – 80m.
• Can be used for high lifts
about 150 metres but
their efficiency is
generally low.
Advantages and disadvantages of air
lift pumps.
ADVANTAGES:
• Inspite of low efficiency, an air lift pump can
deliver large amounts of water from small dia
wells.
• Not harmed by sedimented water.
• Cheaper, reliable and simple in operation
• No moving parts which may be in contact with
water– used for highly acidic or alkaline water.
• Yield of a well, using such pump, can be increased
by using more amount of compressed air.
DISADVANTAGES
• Not adopted for raising water much above the
ground level, and if this is necessary, a second
pump has to be installed.
• Efficiency is low
• Flow obtained is not continuous but is
intermittent.
• Less flexible in fulfilling variable demands.
• In order to obtain sufficient value of
submergence, the depth of submergence has to
be increased and thus the well has to be made
deeper than required. This increases the cost.
Jet pumps
• Used for pumping water
from small wells.
• Used for constructional
works for dewatering
trenches.
• Efficiency is low
• Compact and light in
weight
• Can also handle
sedimented waters
without much trouble.
Hydraulic ram
• A kind of pumping
arrangement which does
not utilise any outside
power and uses the
principle of water hammer
pressures developed when
a moving mass of water is
suddenly stopped.
• A large amount of water
must be available at
moderate head, so as to
lift small amount of water
to higher head.
• Can be used for lifts of
order of 30m or so.
Advantages and disadvantages of
hydraulic ram
ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES:
• Its working is simple • Considerable amount of
and when once it starts water is wasted through a
functioning, practically waste valve, and cannot
no attention is required. be used at places where
• The Ram is durable. water is scarce.
• It is cheap as it does not • It produces considerable
require any fuel. noise while working.