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COMPARATIVE POLICE

SYSTEM
PRESENTED BY:
EMANUEL C. MANAHAN
REGISTERED CRIMINOLOGIST
WHAT IS COMPARATIVE POLICE SYSTEM?
COURSE DESCRIPTION UNDER CHED MEMO 21 S
2005
• THIS STUDY COVERS THE DIFFERENT TRANSNATIONAL
CRIMES, IT NATURE AND EFFECTS AS WELL AS THE
ORGANIZATION OF THE LAW ENFORCEMENT SET-UP IN
THE PHILIPPINES AND ITS COMPARISON OF SELECTED
POLICE MODELS AND THEIR RELATION WITH INTERPOL
AND UN BODIES IN THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST
TRANSNATIONAL CRIMES AND IN THE PROMOTION OF
WORLD PEACE.
COMPARATIVE

• DENOTES THE DEGREE OR GRADE BY


WHICH A PERSON, THING, OR OTHER
ENTITY HAS A PROPERTY OR QUALITY
GREATER OR LESS IN EXTENT THAN
THAT OF ANOTHER.
POLICE
• A POLICE SERVICE IS A PUBLIC FORCE EMPOWERED TO
ENFORCE THE LAW AND TO ENSURE PUBLIC AND SOCIAL
ORDER THROUGH THE LEGITIMIZED USE OF FORCE.
• THE TERM IS MOST COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH POLICE
SERVICES OF A STATE THAT ARE AUTHORIZED TO EXERCISE
THE POLICE POWER OF THAT STATE WITHIN A DEFINED LEGAL
OR TERRITORIAL AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY. THE WORD COMES
VIA FRENCH POLICIER, FROM LATIN POLITIA ("CIVIL
ADMINISTRATION"), FROM ANCIENT GREEK ΠΌΛΙΣ/ POLIS
("CITY").
SYSTEM
• COMBINATION OF PARTS IN A WHOLE; ORDERLY
ARRANGEMENT ACCORDING TO SOME COMMON
LAW; COLLECTION OF RULES AND PRINCIPLES IN
SCIENCE OR ART; METHOD OF TRANSACTING
BUSINESS (WEBSTER)
COMPARATIVE POLICE SYSTEM
• PROCESS OF OUTLINING THE SIMILARITIES AND
DIFFERENCES OF ONE POLICE SYSTEM TO ANOTHER IN
ORDER TO DISCOVER INSIGHTS IN THE FIELD OF
INTERNATIONAL POLICING.
THE ROLE OF THE POLICE
THE PRIMARY LAW ENFORCEMENT BODY OF THE STATE IS THE POLICE.
THE BASIC POLICE MISSION — PRESERVING ORDER BY ENFORCING RULES OF
CONDUCT OR LAWS — WAS THE SAME IN THE ANCIENT COMMUNITIES AS IT IS
TODAY IN SOPHISTICATED AND HIGHLY URBANIZED SOCIETIES.

THE FIRST COMPONENT OF THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN THE


PHILIPPINE SETTING IS RESPONSIBLE IN PERFORMING THESE FUNDAMENTAL
FUNCTIONS.

1. PREVENTION OF CRIME AND SUPPRESSION OF CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES


2. PRESERVATION OF PEACE AND ORDER
3. PROTECTION OF LIFE AND PROPERTY
4. ENFORCEMENT OF LAWS AND ORDINANCES
5. REGULATION OF NON-CRIMINAL CONDUCT
6. INVESTIGATION OF CRIMES
7. APPREHENSION OF CRIMINALS
8. SAFEGUARDING OF CITIZENS’ RIGHTS AND
PUBLIC MORALS
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF POLICING
SYSTEM
A. EVOLUTION OF POLICING IN ENGLAND

1. DURING THE ANGLO-SAXON (ANCIENT ENGLAND) PERIOD (600-1066 AD), THE


FOLLOWING POLICING SYSTEMS WERE PRACTICED:

A. FRANKPLEDGE SYSTEM. POLICING WAS CARRIED OUT UNDER A SYSTEM CALLED


FRANKPLEDGE OR MUTUAL PLEDGE, WHEREBY EVERY MALE OVER 12 YEARS OLD JOIN
NINE (9) OF HIS NEIGHBORS TO FORM A TYTHINGMEN – A GROUP OF MEN WHOSE
DUTY WAS TO APPREHEND ANY PERSON WHO OFFENDS ANOTHER AND DELIVER THAT
OFFENDER FOR TRIAL. ANYONE WHO FAILED TO JOIN AND PERFORM THIS
OBLIGATORY DUTY WAS SEVERELY FINED. THUS, POLICING RESPONSIBILITY LIES ON THE
HANDS OF THE CITIZENS.

B. TUN POLICING. TUN WAS THE FORERUNNER OF THE WORD “TOWN”. UNDER THIS
SYSTEM, ALL MALE RESIDENTS WERE REQUIRED TO GUARD THE TOWN TO PRESERVE
PEACE AND ORDER, PROTECT THE LIFE AND PROPERTIES OF THE PEOPLE AND OTHER
FACTORS THAT DISTURBS THE PEACE AND ORDER.
C. HUE AND CRY. IN THIS SYSTEM, THE COMPLAINANT OR VICTIM GOES TO THE
MIDDLE OF THE COMMUNITY AND SHOUT TO CALL ALL MALE RESIDENTS TO
ASSEMBLE. THE VICTIM REPORTS HIS COMPLAINT TO THE ASSEMBLY.
CONSEQUENTLY, ALL THE MALE RESIDENTS WILL GO AFTER THE CRIMINAL AND
APPREHEND HIM.

D. ROYAL JUDGE SYSTEM. THE ROYAL JUDGE CONDUCTED CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION


AND GAVE PUNISHMENT FITTED TO THE CRIME COMMITTED. THIS PRACTICE
STARTED THE IDENTIFICATION OF CRIMINALS.

E. TRIAL BY ORDEAL. A SUSPECT WAS REQUIRED TO PLACE HIS HANDS OVER


BOILING WATER OR OIL. IF HE WOULD NOT GET HURT, HE WILL BE ACQUITTED BUT
WHEN HURT, HE WOULD BE CONSIDERED GUILTY. DOUBLE JEOPARDY WAS
PREVALENT DURING THIS PERIOD.
1.DURING THE NORMAL PERIOD (1066-1285), THE FOLLOWING ARE SIGNIFICANT
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLICING SYSTEM:
A. SHIRE-REEVE SYSTEM. WHEN KING WILLIAM NORMAN BECAME THE RULER OF
ENGLAND, HE DIVIDED HIS KINGDOM INTO 55 MILITARY DISTRICTS KNOWN AS THE SHIRE-
REEVES. SHIRE MEANS A DISTRICT WHILE REEVE MEANS THE RULER WHO MADE LAWS, PASS
JUDGMENT AND IMPOSE PUNISHMENT. HE WAS ASSISTED BY A GROUP OF CONSTABLES, THE
FORERUNNER OF THE CONSTABULARY. THE TERM SHIRE-REEVE EVENTUALLY BECAME SHERIFF,
THE TITLE OF THE CHIEF OF CONSTABLES OR POLICE OFFICERS IN A CERTAIN TOWN. THE
TRAVELLING JUDGE WAS HELD RESPONSIBLE IN DECIDING CASES THAT WERE TAKEN FROM
SHIRE-REEVES DUE TO SOME ABUSES.
B. LEGIS HENRIE. THIS LAW WAS ENACTED DURING THE TIME OF KING HENRY I,
WHICH IMPOSED THE FOLLOWING FEATURES:
• LAW VIOLATIONS WERE CLASSIFIED AS OFFENSES AGAINST THE KING.
• POLICEMEN BECAME PUBLIC OFFICIALS.
• THE POLICE AND THE CITIZENS HAVE THE BROAD POWER TO ARREST.
• GRAND JURY WAS CREATED TO INQUIRE ON THE FACTS OF THE LAW.
C. IN 1195, KING RICHARD OF ENGLAND ISSUED A PROCLAMATION ENTITLED KEEPERS
OF THE PEACE, REQUIRING THE APPOINTMENT OF KNIGHTS TO KEEP THE KING’S
PEACE BY STANDING AS GUARDS ON BRIDGES AND GATES WHILE CHECKING THE
PEOPLE ENTERING AND LEAVING THE CITIES AND TOWNS.

D. ON JUNE 15, 1215, MAGNA CARTA (GREAT CHARTER) WAS SEALED BY KING JOHN
OF ENGLAND. THIS BECAME A LAW UPON THE DEMAND OF THE KNIGHTS OF THE
ROUND TABLE. THE KNIGHTS FORCED KING JOHN TO SIGN THE DOCUMENT WHICH
DECLARED THE FOLLOWING:
1) NO FREEMEN SHALL BE TAKEN OR IMPRISONED, DISPOSED,
OUTLAWED, OR BOWED EXCEPT BY LEGAL JUDGMENT OF HIS PEERS.
2) NO PERSON SHOULD BE TRIED FOR MURDER UNLESS THERE IS PROOF OF
THE BODY OF THE VICTIM.
3) THERE SHOULD BE NATIONAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AS WELL AS THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEGISLATION.
DURING THE WESTMINSTER PERIOD (1285- 1500):
A. STATUTE OF WINCHESTER (1285) WAS ENACTED FOR LAW AND ORDER. THIS
LAW INTRODUCED THE SYSTEM OF WATCH AND WARD.

B. STATUTE OF 1295 WAS ENACTED, WHICH BEGAN THE CLOSING OF THE GATES OF
LONDON DURING SUNSET. THIS STARTED THE OBSERVATION OF CURFEW HOURS.

C. JUSTICE OF THE PEACE WAS A POSITION GIVEN TO A RESPECTED CITIZEN, WHO


HAS THE POWER TO ARREST, PURSUE AND IMPRISON THE OFFENDERS.

D. STAR CHAMBER COURT WAS ESTABLISHED AS


SPECIAL COURT THAT TRIED OFFENDERS AGAINST THE
STATE.
DEVELOPMENTS IN POLICING SYSTEM DURING THE
MODERN PERIOD (17TH- 19TH CENTURY) IN
ENGLAND:
1. KING CHARLES II of England
passed a law in 1663 that provided
for the employment of NIGHT
WATCHMEN or BELLMEN to be on
duty from
sunset to sunrise.

2. In 1748, HENRY FIELDING became the Chief


Magistrate at Bow Street in London. He organized a
group of men known as BOW STREET RUNNERS
(thief catchers). He later formed the BOW STREET
HORSE PATROL whose duty was to patrol the main
roads thus secure the travelers from highwaymen or
highway bandits.
3. THE BRITISH STATESMAN SIR ROBERT PEEL IN 1829
ESTABLISHED THE LONDON METROPOLITAN POLICE,
WHICH BECAME THE WORLD’S FIRST MODERN
ORGANIZED POLICE FORCE. IT WAS LATER CALLED
SCOTLAND YARD. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE
BRITISH POLICE SYSTEM IS ESPECIALLY
SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THE PATTERN THAT EMERGED
NOT ONLY BECAME A MODEL FOR THE
AMERICAN POLICE SYSTEM BUT ALSO HAD GREAT
INFLUENCE ON THE STYLE OF POLICING IN
ALMOST ALL INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES. PEEL
EARNED THE TITLE – THE FATHER OF MODERN
POLICING SYSTEM.
DEVELOPMENTS IN FRENCH POLICE SYSTEM DURING THE MODERN PERIOD IN
FRANCE:
1. DURING THE 17TH CENTURY IN FRANCE, KING LOUIS XIV MAINTAINED A SMALL CENTRAL
POLICE ORGANIZATION CONSISTING OF SOME 40 INSPECTORS WHO, WITH THE HELP OF
NUMEROUS PAID INFORMANTS, SUPPLIED THE GOVERNMENT WITH DETAILS ABOUT THE
CONDUCT OF PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS.

2. IN PARIS, THE POSITION OFFICERS DE PAIX WAS FORMED IN 1791. THIS WAS THE ORIGIN
OF THE TERM PEACE OFFICERS. THE FRENCH WERE THE FIRST TO ESTABLISH UNIFORMED
POLICE OFFICERS – THEY WERE CALLED SERGENT DE VILLE (SERVANT OF THE CITY). OTHER
CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE FRENCH IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLICING SYSTEM WERE:
A. CONCEIVING STREET SIGNS.
B. ASSIGNING HOUSE NUMBERS.
C. INSTALLING STREET LIGHTING.
D. CREATING EMERGENCY AND RESCUE SERVICES.
E. USE OF POLICE AMBULANCES.
F. USE OF “WARRANT CARD” AND ID SIGNIFYING AUTHORITY TO ARREST.
AMERICAN POLICE SYSTEM
• POLICING SYSTEM IN AMERICA FOLLOWED THE MODEL DEVELOPED IN
ENGLAND, NEW YORK, BOSTON AND PHILADELPHIA ORGANIZED THEIR
NIGHT WATCHMEN, WHICH WAS SIMILAR TO THE BELLMEN CREATED IN
LONDON DURING THE REIGN OF KING CHARLES II. THESE NIGHT
WATCHMEN WERE KNOWN AS RATTLEWATCH BECAUSE THEY CARRIED
RATTLE WHILE ON DUTY TO INFORM THE PUBLIC OF THEIR WATCHFUL
PRESENCE.
DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN POLICE FORCE
IN 1638, NIGHT-WATCH WAS INITIATED IN BOSTON,
MASSACHUSETTS.
IN 1658, RATTLE-WATCH WAS ORGANIZED IN NEW YORK.
NIGHT WATCH STARTED IN PHILADELPHIA IN 1700.
IN 1722, NEW HAVEN HAD A POLICE REGULATION THAT “NO
WATCHMAN WILL HAVE THE LIBERTY TO SLEEP.”
IN 1800, IT BECAME A GOVERNMENT POLICY THAT ABLE-BODIED
MALES OVER 16 YEARS OLD WERE REQUIRED TO SERVE WITHOUT
PAY.
NEW YORK CITY POLICE BEGAN TO ADOPT A FULL POLICE
UNIFORM IN 1856.
1833 WAS THE ADVENT OF DAYTIME POLICE WITH PAY.
DEVELOPMENT OF STATE POLICE FORCE IN AMERICA
TEXAS RANGERS WERE ORGANIZED IN 1835.
IN 1865, MASSACHUSETTS ORGANIZED A FORCE OF STATE
CONSTABLES.
THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE POLICE CAME INTO EXISTENCE
IN 1905.
DEVELOPMENT OF US FEDERAL POLICE FORCE
IN 1829, POST OFFICE INSPECTION SYSTEM BEGAN.
INVESTIGATION ON CRIMES AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT STARTED IN
1861.
DETECTIVE FORCES WERE FORMED SOMETIME IN 1868 TO
INVESTIGATE PROBLEMS ON REVENUE SERVICES, IMMIGRATION AND
SMUGGLING.
IN 1895, FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ATTENTION FOCUSED ON LOTTERIES,
DRUG REGULATIONS AND TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS.
ANTI-WHITE SLAVERY ACT AND MOTOR VEHICLE ACT WERE ENACTED
IN 1910.
IN 1934, NATIONAL KIDNAPPING ACT, BANKING ACT, AND
RACKETEERING ACT WERE PASSED BY THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS.
EVOLUTION OF POLICE SERVICE IN THE PHILIPPINE
SETTING
EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN POLICING SYSTEM DURING THE SPANISH REGIME:

THE POLICE FORCE DURING THE SPANISH REGIME WAS CONSIDERED AS PART OF
THE MILITARY SYSTEM BY THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT. THE LOCALLY ORGANIZED
POLICE FORCES, ALTHOUGH PERFORMING CIVIL DUTIES AND SEEMINGLY CREATED
FOR THE SOLE PURPOSE OF MAINTAINING PEACE, WERE IN FACT DIRECTLY
COMMANDED BY THE COLONIAL MILITARY GOVERNMENT. POLICE FORCES
ORGANIZED DURING THE SPANISH REGIME WERE:

1. CARABINEROS DE SEGURIDAD PUBLICO (MOUNTED POLICE) WAS


ORGANIZED IN 1712 FOR THE PURPOSE OF CARRYING OUT THE POLICIES OF THE
SPANISH GOVERNMENT. THE MEMBERS WERE ARMED AND CONSIDERED AS THE
MOUNTED POLICE. LATER, THEY DISCHARGED THE DUTIES OF A PORT, HARBOR, AND
RIVER POLICE.
2. GUARDRILLEROS was a body of rural police
organized in each town that was created by
the Royal decree of January 8, 1836. This
police force wads composed of 5% of the
able-bodied male inhabitants of each town or
province, and each member should serve for at
least 3 years.

3.GUARDIA CIVIL WAS THE POLICE ORGANIZATION


CREATED BY THE ROYAL DECREE ISSUED BY THE
SPANISH CROWN GOVERNMENT ON FEBRUARY 12,
1852. IT RELIEVED THE SPANISH PENINSULAR
TROOPS OF THEIR WORKS IN POLICING TOWNS.
IT CONSISTED OF A BODY OF FILIPINO POLICEMEN
ORGANIZED ORIGINALLY IN EACH OF THE
PROVINCIAL CAPITALS OF THE CENTRAL PROVINCES
OF LUZON UNDER THE COMMAND OF ALCALDE
(GOVERNOR).
DEVELOPMENTS IN POLICING SYSTEM DURING THE JAPANESE
OCCUPATION:

THE JAPANESE MILITARY POLICE, KNOWN AS KEMPETAI WERE HELD


RESPONSIBLE IN MAINTAINING PEACE AND ORDER IN MANILA AND
ADJACENT URBAN AREAS. KEMPETAI RULED THE URBAN AREAS UNTIL
GEN. DOUGLAS MCARTHUR RETURNED ON FEBRUARY 7, 1945.

THE MANILA POLICE DEPARTMENT, WHICH WAS CREATED DURING


THE FIRST AMERICAN OCCUPATION, WAS RENAMED INTO
METROPOLITAN CONSTABULARY UNDER THE BUREAU OF
CONSTABULARY.
1. INSULAR POLICE FORCE Was established on
November 30, 1890 during the Filipino-American war
(1898-1901) upon the recommendation of the Philippine
commission to the secretary of war.

2. INSULAR CONSTABULARY was created on


July18, 1901 by virtue of Act Nr. 175 titled as “An
Act Providing for the Organization and
Government of an Insular Constabulary”.

3. MANILA POLICE DEPARTMENT (MPD) was organized on July


31, 1901 by virtue of Act Nr. 183 of the Philippine Commission. The
1st Chief of Police was Capt. George Curry, a US Army officer
appointed by the TAFT COMMISSION on August 7, 1901. Capt.
Columbus Piatt was the last American COP of MPD before WW II
broke out.
4. On October 3, 1901, the Insular Constabulary was changed to PHILIPPINE
CONSTABULARY (PC) by virtue of Act Nr. 255. Brig/Gen. Henry T. Allen was the 1st
Chief of the Philippine Constabulary. He was the PC Chief from 1901 to 1907 such that
he was called as the Father of Constabulary in the Philippines. The PC was manned
mostly by Filipinos but officers were mostly Americans.

5. REVISED ADMINISTRATIVE CODE OF 1917 was approved a year before World War I
(August 1914 to November 1918) ended. In Section 825 of this law, it stated that the
Philippine Constabulary is a national police institution for preserving the peace keeping
order and enforcing the law. Brig/Gen. Rafael Crame became the first Filipino Chief of
Police. He served as the PC Chief from 1917-1927.

6. On January 1, 1932, Act Nr. 3815, otherwise known as the Revised Penal Code of the
Philippines took effect.
7.IN NOVEMBER 1938, ACT NR. 181 REQUIRED THE CREATION OF A BUREAU OF
INVESTIGATION. THIS AGENCY SHOULD BE THE MODIFICATION OF THE DIVISION OF
INVESTIGATION FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. FINALLY, ON JUNE 19, 1947,
REPUBLIC ACT NR. 157 WAS ENACTED WHICH CREATED THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF
INVESTIGATION.

• COL. ANTONIO C. TORRES – THE 1ST FILIPINO COP WHEN MANILA POLICE
DEPARTMENT BECAME AN ALL FILIPINO POLICE ORGANIZATION; DECLARED MANILA
AS AN OPEN CITY WHEN WORLD WAR II BROKE-OUT IN 1941; DURING THE
WORLD WAR II, MANILA POLICE WAS PLACED AGAIN UNDER THE AMERICAN
CONTROL.

• COL. MARCUS ELLIS JONES – A U.S. PROVOST MARSHALL WHO WAS NAMED AS
MPD COP JUST AFTER THE MANILA LIBERATION.

• COL. LAMBERTO T. JAVALERA – THE 1ST FILIPINO COP OF MPD APPOINTED BY


PRES. ROXAS UNDER THE REPUBLIC GOVERNMENT.
Operational Styles
A number of other scholars have tried to
categorize policing styles.

In practice, it is difficult to categorize


police officers, because each officer
reacts differently depending on the
situation.
Police Functions
The list of functions that police are expected to carry out is long and
varies from place to place. There are some similarities in police
departments though.
1. Patrol
2. Investigation
3. Traffic Management
4. Community Policing
THE NEED FOR COMPARISON
• THEORIES AND PRACTICES IN LAW ENFORCEMENT HAVE BEEN
COMPARED IN SEVERAL STUDIES UNDER DIVERSE CIRCUMSTANCES.
• THE GOAL IS TO TEST WHETHER THE THEORY AND PRACTICES IN
POLICING NEEDS INNOVATION TO MEET THE DEMANDS OF THE
PRESENT TRENDS IN CRIME FIGHTING.
• 5TH CENTURY B.C. HERACLITUS OBSERVED THAT
“YOU CAN NEVER STEP IN THE SAME RIVER
TWICE” IN OTHER WORDS ALL ARE IN
CONSTANT FLUX.
• ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE COIN, ARISTOTLE
(384-322 B.C.) FOR EXAMPLE, EXAMINED THE
REASONS FOR STABILITY ALONG WITH THE
CHARACTERISTICS OF “GOOD” GOVERNMENT
IN THE GREEK CITY-STATES
• "COMPARATIVE CRIMINOLOGY IS NOT NEW. IN FACT IT DATES
BACK TO THE GATHERING OF THE FIRST CRIME STATISTICS IN
FRANCE IN 1827 BY PIONEERS OF CRIMINOLOGY SUCH AS
QUETELET, TARDE, VERKKO, AND DURKHEIM WHO USED
GOVERNMENT STATISTICS TO DO COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF
CRIME."
UNITED NATIONS
WHAT IS THE UNITED NATION?
- AN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION DESIGNED TO MAKE
THE ENFORCEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW, SECURITY,
HUMAN RIGHTS, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROGRESS
EASIER FOR COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD
- 193 MEMBER COUNTRIES
- HEADQUARTERS IN NEW YORK CITY
HISTORY OF THE UN
- THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS WAS THE PREDECESSOR TO THE UN,
IT WAS FOUNDED IN1919 AND WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR
ENSURING PEACE AND COOPERATION BETWEEN WORLD
NATIONS
- THE TERM ‘’UNITED NATIONS’’ WAS COINED IN 1942 BY
WINSTON CHURCHILL AND FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
HISTORY
• IT WAS SIGNED AT THE SOUTH DAKOTA CIVIC CENTER OF
THE SAN FRANCISCO WAR MEMORIAL AND PERFORMING
ARTS CENTER (PART OF THE CIVIC CENTER) IN SAN
FRANCISCO, UNITED STATES, ON JUNE 26, 1945, BY 50 OF
THE 51 ORIGINAL MEMBER COUNTRIES (POLAND, THE
OTHER ORIGINAL MEMBER, WHICH WAS NOT REPRESENTED
AT THE CONFERENCE, SIGNED IT LATER).
• IT ENTERED INTO FORCE ON OCTOBER 24, 1945, AFTER
BEING RATIFIED BY THE FIVE PERMANENT MEMBERS OF THE
SECURITY COUNCIL (CHINA, FRANCE, THE UNION OF SOVIET
SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE
UNITED STATES) AND A MAJORITY OF OTHER SIGNATORIES
HISTORY OF THE UN
- THE UN WAS FOUNDED ON OCTOBER 24, 1945, WHEN THE
CHARTER OF THE UN WAS DRAFTED AT THE UN CONFERENCE ON
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION IN SAN FRANCISCO
- THE CONFERENCE WAS ATTENDED BY 50 NATIONS AND SEVERAL
NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
HISTORY OF THE UN
- MAIN PRINCIPLES: SAVE FUTURE GENERATIONS FROM
WAR, REAFFIRM HUMAN RIGHTS, AND ESTABLISH
EQUAL RIGHTS FOR ALL NATIONS
- UNITED NATIONS DAY IS CELEBRATED ON OCTOBER 24
PURPOSES OF THE UN
TO MAINTAIN INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY
TO DEVELOP FRIENDLY RELATIONS AMONG NATIONS
TO ACHIEVE INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN SOLVING
INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS OF AN ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, CULTURAL
OR HUMANITARIAN CHARACTER
TO BE A CENTRE FOR HARMONIZING THE ACTIONS OF NATIONS IN
THE ATTAINMENT OF THESE COMMON ENDS
THE CHARTER OF THE UN
• THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER IS THE
TREATY THAT FORMS AND ESTABLISHES
THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION
CALLED THE UNITED NATIONS.
CHAPTER I
• CHAPTER I SETS FORTH THE PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES
OF THE UNITED NATIONS, INCLUDING PROVISIONS OF
THE MAINTENANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND
SECURITY
PREAMBLE
"WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED: TO SAVE
SUCCEEDING GENERATIONS FROM THE SCOURGE OF WAR, WHICH TWICE
IN OUR LIFETIME HAS BROUGHT UNTOLD SORROW TO MANKIND, AND
TO REAFFIRM FAITH IN FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS, IN THE DIGNITY
AND WORTH OF THE HUMAN PERSON, IN THE EQUAL RIGHTS OF MEN
AND WOMEN AND OF NATIONS LARGE AND SMALL, AND TO ESTABLISH
CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH JUSTICE AND RESPECT FOR THE
OBLIGATIONS ARISING FROM TREATIES AND OTHER SOURCES OF
INTERNATIONAL LAW CAN BE MAINTAINED, AND TO PROMOTE SOCIAL
PROGRESS AND BETTER STANDARDS OF LIFE IN LARGER FREEDOM…”
ORGANIZATION OF THE UN
- PRINCIPAL ORGANS OF THE UN:
- THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
- THE SECRETARIAT
- THE SECURITY COUNCIL
- THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
- THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
- THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
- MAIN FUNCTION: ASSESSING MEMBER COUNTRIES AND
DECIDING ON THE BUDGET
- THIS IS THE MAIN DECISION- MAKING AND REPRESENTATIVE
ASSEMBLY IN THE UN THROUGH ITS POLICIES AND
RECOMMENDATIONS. IT IS COMPOSED OF ALL MEMBER STATES ,
IS HEADED BY A PRESIDENT ELECTED FROM THE MEMBER STATES,
AND MEETS FROM SEPTEMBER TO DECEMBER
- THE ONLY ORGAN WHERE EVERY MEMBER STATE IS REPRESENTED

- CONSISTS OF COMMITTEES
- CONVENES ANNUALLY IN SEPTEMBER, SPECIAL SESSIONS
CAN ALSO BE HELD
FUNCTIONS OF GENERAL ASSEMBLY
A. DELIBERATIVE = INITIATING STUDIES AND MAKING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
B. SUPERVISORY = RECEIVING AND CONSIDERING ANNUAL AND SPECIAL REPORTS
FROM ANOTHER ORGANS
C. FINANCIAL = APPROVAL AND APPORTIONMENT OF BUDGET
D. ELECTIVE = ELECTION OF NON-PERMANENT MEMBERS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL
E. CONSTITUENT = ADMISSIONS OF MEMBERS AND THE AMENDMENTS OF CHARTER
THE SECRETARIAT
- INCLUDES THE SECRETARY GENERAL AND THE SECRETARIAT
STAFF
- PRIMARILY HAS AN ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTION

- THE SECRETARY GENERAL HOLDS OFFICE FOR FIVE


YEARS PER TERM
- THE FIRST EVER SECRETARY GENERAL WAS TRYGVE LIE,
THE OFFICE IS CURRENTLY HELD BY ANTONIO GUTERRES
THE SECURITY COUNCIL
- IS ANOTHER BRANCH IN THE ORGANIZATION OF THE UN
AND IS THE MOST POWERFUL OF ALL THE BRANCHES.
- DEALS WITH THREATS TO INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND
SECURITY
- HAS 15 MEMBERS, 5 OF WHICH ARE
PERMANENT: THE USA, CHINA, RUSSIA, UNITED
KINGDOM AND FRANCE
- PERMANENT MEMBERS HAVE VETO POWER
WHEN THE COUNCIL DECIDES ON IMPORTANT
ISSUES
THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF
JUSTICE

- THE PRINCIPAL JUDICIAL ORGAN OF THE UN


- BASED IN THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS
- CONSISTS OF 15 JUDGES ELECTED BY THE GENERAL
ASSEMBLY AND SECURITY COUNCIL
- APPLIES INTERNATIONAL LAW
- NOT BOUND BY PRECEDENTS
- NO APPEALS CAN BE MADE BY PARTIES TO ITS JUDGMENT
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL
- THIS COUNCIL SERVES AS THE CENTRAL FORUM FOR DISCUSSION INTERNATIONAL
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUE AND FORMULATING POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
ADDRESSED TO MEMBER STATES AND THE UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM
- CONSISTS OF 54 MEMBERS ELECTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY FOR A 3 YEAR TERM.
EFFORTS ARE TOWARDS THE FOLLOWING:
A. HIGHER STANDARDS OF LIVING
B. CONDITION OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PROGRESS AND DEVELOPMENT
C. SOLUTIONS OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, HEALTH AND RELATED
PROBLEMS
D. UNIVERSAL RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS
TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL

IT ESTABLISHED TO HELP ENSURE THAT TRUST TERRITORIES WERE


ADMINISTERED IN THE BESTS INTEREST OF THEIR INHABITANTS
AND OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY
TRUST TERRITORIES – THE CONCEPT IS DISTINCT FROM A
TERRITORY TERM TEMPORARILY AND DIRECTLY GOVERNED BY THE
UNITED NATIONS