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"The number of transistors and resistors
on a chip doubles every 18 months." By
Intel co-founder Gordon Moore
regarding the pace of semiconductor
technology. He made this famous
comment in 1965 when there were
approximately 60 devices on a chip.
Proving Moore's law to be rather
accurate, four decades later, Intel placed
1.7 billion transistors on its Itanium
chip.
Ô u multi-core PU or chip-level multiprocessor, MP)
combines two or more independent cores into a single package
composed of a single integrated circuit I), called a die, or
more dies packaged togetherm

Ô u multi-core microprocessor implements multiprocessing in a


single physical package. Multi-core architecture has a single
processor package that contains two or more processor
"execution cores," or computational engines, and delivers³
with appropriate software³fully parallel execution of multiple
software threads.
Ô ores in a multi-core device may share a single coherent cache
at the highest on-device cache level e.g.  for the Intel ore
) or may have separate caches e.g. current uMD dual-core
processors). The processors also share the same interconnect to
the rest of the system.

Ô The operating system ) perceives each of its execution cores


as a discrete processor, with all the associated execution
resources.

Ô ach "core" independently implements optimizations such as


superscalar execution, pipelining, and multithreading
Ô u dual-core processor contains two cores and a uad-core
processor contains four cores. Dual-core processors are the first
step in the transition to multi-core computing.

Ô Intel is already conducting research on architectures that could


hold dozens or even hundreds of processors on a single die

Ô By enabling energy-efficient performance and more-efficient


simultaneous processing of multiple tasks, multi-core processors
promise to improve user experiences in both home and business
environments.

Ô Multi-ore is the future of computing


Ô 
 

Ô  
 
Ô -unctional units
uperscalar is known territory. Diminishing returns for adding
more functional blocks. ingle-threaded architectural
performance is pegged

Ô Data paths
Increasing bandwidth between functional units in a core makes
a difference. uch as comprehensive 64-bit design.
Ô Pipeline
Deeper pipeline buys freuency at expense of increased cache
miss penalty and lower instructions per clock. hallow pipeline
gives better instructions per clock at the expense of freuency
scaling. Max. freuency per core reuires deeper pipelines

Ô ache
ache size buys performance at expense of die size. Deep
pipeline cache miss penalties are reduced by larger caches.
Ô Increased computing apabilities
Multi-core processors allow to complete today's computing
tasks more efficiently and will enable entirely new computing
experiences, and the benefits apply to server and client
platforms, as well as the home and enterprise environments.
Multi-core capability can enhance user experiences in
multitasking environments, namely, where a number of
foreground applications run concurrently with a number of
background applications such as virus protection and security,
wireless, management, compression, encryption and
synchronization.
Ô Higher Performance
-irst with multiprocessor platforms and then with Hyper-
Threading Technology¹ HT Technology), which was
introduced by Intel in 00 and enables processors to execute
tasks in parallel by weaving together multiple "threads" in a
single-core processor. But whereas HT Technology is limited to
a single core using existing execution resources more efficiently
to better enable threading, multi-core capability provides two
or more complete sets of execution resources to increase overall
compute throughput.
Ô The digital home Business
With ever-growing numbers of networked P and
consumer electronics devices, will increasingly depend on the
multitasking capabilities of multi-core processors to handle the
demands of orchestrating the different networked TVs, stereos,
cameras, and other devices and appliances in the household.
Multi-core is also taking gaming to a whole new level, and will
also make multiparty gaming ubiuitous. Tomorrow's
computers will be powerful enough to run multiparty gaming
and collaboration on their own.
Ô ·uality software development
eading software vendors and corporate developers to
enable multithreaded code that can take full advantage of the
increased capabilities of multi-core processors. us a result,
we've established extensive multithreading tools, education
resources, and experience-based technical expertise that have
helped drive thread-optimization across a wide range of
applications
Ô udjustments to the existing software
In addition to operating system ) support, adjustments
to existing software are reuired to maximize utilization of the
computing resources provided by multi-core processors. ulso,
the ability of multi-core processors to increase application
performance depends on the use of multiple threads within
applications. -or example, most current video games will run
faster on a 3 GHz single-core processor than on a GHz dual-
core processor of the same core architecture)
Ô Thermal management
Integration of a multi-core chip drives production yields
down and they are more difficult to manage thermally than
lower-density single-chip designs. -rom an architectural point
of view, ultimately, single PU designs may make better use of
the silicon surface area than multiprocessing cores, so a
development commitment to this architecture may carry the
risk of obsolescence.
Ô Intel Processors Ô uMD Processors
› Pentium D › uMD pteron
› Presler › uMD Turion
› Yonah › uMD empron etc..
› Montecito
› Paxville
› Dempsey etc« 2 

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