Sie sind auf Seite 1von 25

SQUATTER SETTLEMENT &SLUM REDEVELOPMENT

Amritha M 004 Gopi Madhav 027 Sneha Nallagonda 055


Rakesh Omai 028 GROUP X Anurag Sreeramouji 057
CONTENTS

1. What are squatter settlements and slums?


2. Causes of squatters and slums
3. Characteristic features of slums
4. Risks and threats
5. Slum population at a global and national level
6. Identification of slums in census
7. Schemes developed by the government of India
8. National case study of slums
9. International case study of slums
SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS SLUM

• Collection of buildings where the people have no legal • Slum is a heavily populated urban informal
rights to the land they are built upon settlement characterized by substandard housing
• People are living there illegally and do not own the • Residential areas where dwelling are unfit for human
land habitation by reasons of dilapidation, over crowding,
• Housing for many of the world's poorest people and faculty arrangements and design of such buildings,
offer basic shelter narrowness or faulty arrangement of street ,lack of
• Squatter area is also called as shanty town, where the ventilation ,light or sanitation facilities or any
settlement of plywood, corrugated metal, sheet of combination of these factors which are determined to
plastic and carboard boxes found the safety and health
CAUSES OF SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS AND SLUMS

Rural –urban migration Urbanization

Poor house planning Colonialism and Segregation

Poor Infrastructure Social conflicts social exclusion

Natural Disasters Poverty Politics Informal Economy


CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUMS

1. Location and Growth


2. Insecure tenure
1 3. Sub stand housing and 2
overcrowding
4. Inadequate or no
Infrastructure

3 4
RISKS OF SQUATTERS AND SLUMS

• Vulnerability to natural and


unnatural hazards
• Unemployment and
Informal Economy
• Violence
• Disease
• Child mal nutrition
• Epidemics
SLUM POPULATION IN GOLBAL LEVEL SLUM POPULATION IN NATIONAL LEVEL
URBAN AND SLUM POPULATION GROWTH
IDENTIFICATION OF SLUMS IN CENSUS RESULTS OF CENSUS 2011

Notified slums No slum Slum


• All notified areas in town or city notified as ‘SLUM’ by
state, UT Administration or Local Government under
any Act including a ‘Slum Act’

37%
Recognized Slums
• All areas recognized as ‘Slum’ by state, UT
Administration or Local Government ,Housing and
63%
Slum Boards, which may have not been formally
notified as slum under any act

Identified slums
• A compact area of at least 300 population or about SLUMS REPORTED OUT OF 4,04 2543 TOWNS
60-70 households of poorly built congested STAUTORY TOWNS 63 %

tenements ,in unhygienic environment usually with TOTAL SLUM ENUMERATION 1.08 Lakh IN THE COUNTRY
inadequate infrastructure and lacking in proper BLOCKS
sanitary and drinking water facilities (Identified) LARGEST NUMBER OF SLUMS EBs 21,359 EBs
NUMBER OF SLUM BLOCKS BY TYPE HOUSEHOLDS BY TYPE PERCENTAGE OF SLUMS HHs
OF SLUMS INDIA : CENSUS 2011 OF SLUMS INDIA: CENSUS 2011 TO TOATAL URBAN HHs

Notified Identified
Notified Identified 36% 36%
34% 37%

Recognised
30%
Recognised
28%

Identified Recognised Notified Identified Recognised Notified

NUMBER OF SLUM BLOCKS HOUSEHOLDS BY TYPE OF SLUMS


BY TYPE OF SLUMS

Notified slums 37,072 Notified slums 49.65 lakh HHs

Recognized slums 30,846 Recognized slums 37.96 lakh HHs

Identified slums 40,309 Identified slums 49.88 lakh HHs

Total 1,08,227 Blocks Total 137.49 lakh HHs


TOP 5 STATES SLUMS HOUSEHOLDS BOTTOM 5 STATES HOUSEHOLDS HOUSEHOLDS BY STRUCTURE OF CENSUS HOUSES
(PERMANENT)
STATE Proportion of slum STATE Proportion of
HHs slumHHs
To Urban HHs (%) To Urban HHs (%)
Andhra Pradesh 35.7 Chandigarh 9.7

Chhattisgarh 31.9 Gujarat 6.7

Madya Pradesh 28.3 Jharkhand 5.3

Odisha 23.1 Assam 4.8

West Bengal 21.9 Kerala 1.5


HHs BY LOCATION OF MAN SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER
SOURCE OF LIGHTING SLUM %

ELECTRICITY 90.5

KEROSENE 8.2

SOLAR 0.3

OTHER OIL 0.2

ANY OTHER 0.2

NO LIGHTING 0.5

SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER SLUM %

TAP 74.0

WELL 3.0

HAND PUMP 12.7

TUBE WELL/BOREHOLE 7.6

OTHER SOURCES 2.8


SLUM REMOVAL

An urban renewal strategy used to transform low income settlements with poor
reputation into another type of development or housing

SLUM RELOCATION

Slum relocation strategies rely on removing the slums and


relocating the slum poor to free semi-rural peripheries of
cities, sometimes in free housing

SLUM UPGRADATION

The approach seeks to upgrade the slum with basic


infrastructure such as sanitation, safe drinking water, safe
electricity distribution, paved roads, rain water drainage
system, and bus/metro stops.
HHs BY LOCATION OF MAN SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER
SOURCE OF LIGHTING SLUM %

ELECTRICITY 90.5

KEROSENE 8.2

SOLAR 0.3

OTHER OIL 0.2

ANY OTHER 0.2

NO LIGHTING 0.5

SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER SLUM %

TAP 74.0

WELL 3.0

HAND PUMP 12.7

TUBE WELL/BOREHOLE 7.6

OTHER SOURCES 2.8


GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES FOR SLUMS SINCE INDEPENDENCE
CASE STUDY - NATIONAL

Dharavi , Mumbai,India
• Dharavi is Asia’s largest slum and considered as
one of the largest slums in the world, founded
in 1880 during British regiment.
• 55% of population of Mumbai , appx. 1 million
lives in these slums
• Mumbai’s slums cover 6-8% of the city’s land
with 55%of it’s people

Population - 3,00,000 to 10,00,000


Area - 200 hectares
Density - over 277000 people /sq.km
LIVING CONDITIONS :
• In the slum people have to live with many
problems. People have to go to the toilet in the
street and there are open sewers.
• Children play amongst sewage waste and doctors
deal with 4,000 cases a day of diphtheria and
typhoid. Next to the open sewers are water pipes,
which can crack and take in sewage.
• Dharavi slum is based around this water pipe built
on an old rubbish tip.
• There are also toxic wastes in the slum including
hugely dangerous heavy metals.
• People live in very small dwellings (e.g. 12X12ft),
often with many members of their extended
families
• Water is a big problem for Mumbai's population;
standpipes come on at 5:30am for 2 hours as water
is rationed.
Government response to improve slums :
YEAR PLAN ( programme ) REMARKS
1950’s and To clear slums and rehouse slum • Failed due to shortage of resources to build and
1960’s dwellers in subsidized rental maintain housing stocks and the lack of political will to
housing do so
1970’s and To improve and upgrade the living • Successful in providing basic services such as water,
1980’s conditions in slums toilets, electricity, pathways, street lights, conservancy,
and primary health care and education to slum dwellers.
• Leasehold tenure of land was transferred to cooperative
housing societies of slum dwellers.
• However, the scale of the programs remained limited
and did not prevent slum proliferation

1995 Slum redevelopment plan • Slum land is given to private developers and they should
(Slum redevelopment authority give consent of 70 percent of the slum dwellers in the
formed in 1997) community, the developer will clear the land and
rehouse the eligible slum dwellers free of cost in
multistory-building tenements of 269 square feet carpet
area per household
YEAR AIM (or) PLAN REMARKS
2010 latest urban redevelopment • It involves the construction of 30,000,000 square feet
plan (2,800,000 m2) of housing, schools, parks and roads to serve
(Cost estimated 15,000 the 57,000 families residing in the area, along with 40,000,000
crores) square feet (3,700,000 m2) of residential and commercial
space for sale.
• Opposition to the plans because of receiving of less land than
expected.
• Residents also fear that some of their small businesses in the
informal sector may not be relocated under the
redevelopment plan

Real estate buildings in Mumbai under the scheme of


slum redevelopment.
HOUSING INFRASTRUCTURE

ENVIRONMENT HEALTH
CASE STUDY - NATIONAL

KIBERA, Nairobi, Kenya.

• Kibera is the biggest slum in Africa and one of


the biggest in the world
• Neighborhood of the city of Nairobi, 6.6
kilometres (4.1 mi) from the city centre

Population - nearly 1.2 million


Area - 255 hectares
Density - nearly 2000 people / hectare
LIVING CONDITIONS : • Homes are made of mud,
plastered over boards,
wood or corrugated iron
• The paths between the houses sheeting.
are irregular, narrow and often
have a ditch running down the
middle that has sewage in it.

• A standpipe may supply water for up


to 40 families: private operators run
hosepipes into the area and charge
double the going rate for water.
• Rubbish litters the area as it is
not collected. The area smells
of the charcoal used to provide
fuel and of human waste.
• In most of Kibera there are no
toilet facilities. One latrine
(hole in the ground) is shared
by up to 50 shacks
Government response to improve slums :
YEAR PLAN ( programme ) REMARKS
2004 Kenya Slum Upgrading Programme • The actual target is to improve the livelihoods of
(KENSUP) at least 1.6 million households living in slums
- Partnering with UN-HABITAT (5.3 million slum dwellers) by the year 2020.
• Aimed at improving the livelihoods of
people living and working in slums and
informal settlements.

2011 Kenya Informal Settlement Improvement • Relocation housing was constructed and around
Project (KISIP) 1,800 households were relocated.
• Focus on improving living conditions in • The construction process has been slowed
existing informal settlements by investing in down by a court case.
infrastructure and strengthening tenure
security.

On a smaller scale :
• a British Charity, has been responsible for low cost roofing tiles made from sand and clay and adding
lime and natural fiber to soil to create blocks used for building that are cheaper than concrete.
Lot of charities are working for these slums :
• (UN Habitat) has provided affordable electricity to some parts of the slum at 300 Kenyan shillings per
shack.
• There are two main water pipes - one provided by the council and the other by the World Bank - at a
cost of 3 Kenyan Shillings per 20 liters

Housing under construction for slums


(Kenya Slum Upgrading Programme
(KENSUP)