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Cristobal, A. & Cristobal M. (2017) described
framework as similar to a skeleton. It gives
shape, form and strength to the body so it can
stand on its own. Moreover, it is a basic structure
or frame of reference which is designed to
support or enclosed something (Merriam-
Webster, n.d).
Serves as the BUILDING
BLOCKS or skeleton for the
foundation of the study.
According to Barrot (2017) theoretical
framework refers to a theory, principle or model
that serves as basis in conducting a study. In
addition to that, Cristobal, A. & Cristobal M.
(2017) stated that it can be formulated from
existing theory/ies.
1. Determine the variables included in the study.
2. Review existing literature related to the topic.
3. Look for possible theories that may potentially
account for the expected results of the research.
4. Select the one that is most relevant and can
provide blueprint for the study.

Source: Barrot, J. (2017). Practical Research 2 for Senior High School. Philippines: C & E Publishing, Inc.
1. Cite and discuss related theory/ies.
*Explanation (evidence-based)
2. Conclude by explaining the relationship
between the study and the established theory.
Source: Critobal A. & Cristobal M. (2017). Practical Research 2 for Senior High School. Philippines: C & E
Publishing, Inc.
Adopted from A Structural Equation Model of the Factors Affecting Filipino
University Students’ Shadow Education (SE) Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions,
de Castro, B. and de Guzman, A. (2014)
The attribution theory of Bernard Weiner (1980) serves as the theoretical basis of this research. It
basically looks at how people makes sense of their world; what cause and effect inferences they make about the
behaviors of others and themselves. It incorporates cognitive theory and self-efficacy theory in the sense that it
emphasized that learners’ current self-perception will strongly influence the ways in which they will interpret the
success or failure of their current efforts and hence their future tendency to perform the same behaviors.
According to the attribution theory, the explanation that people tend to make to explain success or failure can be
analyzed in terms of three sets of characteristics: First, the cause of the success or failure may be internal or
external. That is one may succeed or fail because of factors a person believes has origin within himself. Second,
the cause of success or failure may be either stable or unstable. If the person believes the cause is stable, then
the outcome is likely to be the same if he performs the same behavior on another occasion. If it is unstable the
outcome is likely to be different from another occasion.
Third, the cause of the success or failure maybe controllable or uncontrollable. A controllable factor is one which
a person believes he himself can alter if he wishes to do so. An uncontrollable factor is one that he does not
believe he can easily alter.
In this study, Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) theory of reasoned action (TRA) was used to understand the
student clientele’s attitude and behavioral intention on shadow education. TRA suggests that a person’s
behavioral intention depends on the person’s attitude about the behavior and subjective norms. The theory has
been used to predict consumer intentions and provides a relatively simple basis for identifying where and how to
target consumer’s behavioral changes (Sheppard, Hartwick, and Warshaw, 1988)
In relation to SE activities, students clientele behavioral intentions to repurchase and recommend SE
services are curved by their attitudes. These attitudes may either be positive or negative in nature depending on
their socio demographic background (Frooman & Murrell 2005; Hartman, 2008) and the attributes of the formal
schools and SEIs they attended. Socio demographic profile of students clientele that may have influence over
their attitudes include gender, sibship size and structure, problems with academic performance, average monthly
income, and parents’ highest educational attainment . Formal school attributes include type of school, location
and perceived quality of education received.
Hypothesis were argued on the assumption that even if it usually the parents who make the final decision
for their children to avail of SE services, the student clienteles’ attitude toward such service is somehow
influenced by the perceived expectations of their parents and their socio demographic profile.

Source: Serrano, A. Practical Research 2 (Quantitative Research) K to 12 Compliant. Philippines:

Unlimited Books Library Services & Publishing, Inc. pp. 68-69
JEAN PIAGET – schema, cognitive development

LEV VYGOTSKY – zone of proximal development, scaffolding

B. F SKINNER– behaviorism, reinforcement and punishment

JEROME BRUNER – spiral curriculum, discovery learning

BENJAMIN BLOOM– learning objectives

HOWARD GARDNER – multiple intelligences

Source: Lynch, M. (2018). 6 Education Theorist that All Teachers Should Know. The Advocate.
Retrieved from:
Jerusalem, et al. (2017) defined conceptual
framework as the researcher’s idea on how the
research problem will have to be explored. It
describes the relationship between specific
variables in the study. Regoniel (2010) describe
conceptual framework as the paradigm of the
IPO Model (Input-Process-Output Model)
This is largely use when the research attempts to
isolate the factor or major variable that causes
the problem, subject or phenomenon under
investigation. This model is used when the
statements of problem are all factor-isolating
IPO Model (Input-Process-Output Model)
Entrepreneur’s Roles Toward Improved Work Performance

• Profile of the
a. Age
b. Sex Analysis of data
c. Seminars Attended through the Profile and roles of
• Roles of questionnaire, informal entrepreneurs are
Entrepreneurs interviews , and determined
a. Assessment statistical treatment
b. Planning
c. Implementation
d. Evaluation

Source: Critobal A. & Cristobal M. (2017). Practical Research 2 for Senior High School. Philippines: C & E
Publishing, Inc. pp. 113
IV-DV Model (Independent Variable-
Dependent Variable Model)
This model is used in experiment-based studies.
The questions raised are higher order and
classified as situation-relating.
IV-DV Model (Independent Variable-Dependent Variable Model)
Effects of Computer-assisted instruction and Demonstration Method on the Level of
Performance of Grade 12 Students

Teaching Methodology used Level of Performance of

by instructors Grade 12 Students
a. Computer-assisted • Academic Grades
instruction • Practicum Grades
b. Demonstration method • Parent’s Satisfaction

Source: Critobal A. & Cristobal M. (2017). Practical Research 2 for Senior High School. Philippines: C & E
Publishing, Inc. pp. 114
PC Model (predictor-criterion model)
This model is used when relating and assessing
the influence between two or more variables.
Studies that focus on relationship/associations,
differences, and impacts will benefit from this
PC Model (predictor-criterion model)
Relationship of the Teaching Competence of Senior High School Teachers to the
Level of Performance of ABM Students

Teaching competence of Level of Performance of

senior high school teachers ABM Students
a. Knowledge Level • Academic Grades
b. Pedagogical Skills • Behavioral Attributes
c. Classroom Management • Peer Evaluation Result

Source: Critobal A. & Cristobal M. (2017). Practical Research 2 for Senior High School. Philippines: C & E
Publishing, Inc. pp. 114
-P Model
This model is used in research studies that
propose a program or any intervention measure.
It fits the situation producing level of
-P Model
Teaching Competence of Instructors and the Level of Performance of Students
Towards the Formulation of Faculty Development Program

Teaching Competence
Level of Performance of
of Instructors
• Knowledge Level Faculty Development
• Academic Grades
• Pedagogical Skills Program
• Practicum
• Classroom
• Peer Evaluation

Source: Critobal A. & Cristobal M. (2017). Practical Research 2 for Senior High School. Philippines: C & E
Publishing, Inc. pp. 115
POM (proposed original model)
This model is used when the researchers
presents an original paradigm. The requirement
it must be scientific.
Participation of Nursing Students in Infection Control Practices: Basis for Enhanced
RLE Supervisory Program (Quaizon, 2017)

Infection Control Practices

Extent of participation
Student Respondents’ Preparation of IV fluids
in the infection control
Profile Preparation of IV medication
• Age Assistance in the
• Gender Administration of IV
CI’s assessment of the
• Civil Status medication
students’ extent of the
• Hospital Assignment Skin Care
participation in infection
Umbilical Cord Care
control practices
Eye Care

Enhanced Related Learning Experience Supervisory Program

Source: Critobal A. & Cristobal M. (2017). Practical Research 2 for Senior High School. Philippines: C & E
Publishing, Inc. pp. 116