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Fluid Mechanics

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Fluid Mechanics - I

Professor (Civil and Environmental Engineering)

Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra

Civil Engineering

• Structural Engineering

• Geotechnical Engineering

• Water Resources Engineering

• Environmental Engineering

• Transportation Engineering

• Other Specialisations like Surveying,

Construction Technology etc

Water Resources Engineering

• Fluid Mechanics – I

• Fluid Mechanics – II

• Irrigation Engineering and Hydrology

Electives

• Dam and Water Power Engineering

• Ground Water Engineering

• Watershed Engineering and Management

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Mechanics – I

• Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Fluid

Properties, Fluid Statics, Fluid Kinematics,

Fluid Dynamics, Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow,

Boundary Layer, Drag and Lift, Dimensional

Analysis, Hydraulic Similitude, Hydraulic

Model

Fluid Mechanics – II

• Open Channel Flow, Hydraulic Machines

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 4

Fluid Mechanics - I

• Introduction

• Fluid Statics

• Kinematics of Fluid Flow

• Dynamics of Fluid Flow

• Laminar and Turbulent Flows

• Boundary Layer Concept

• Dimensional Analysis and Hydraulic Similitude

Fluid Mechanics - I

Portion up to Mid Semester Examination

• Introduction

• Fluid Statics

• Kinematics of Fluid Flow

Teachers Internal Assessment

• Term Paper Presentation – 15 Marks

• To be presented in the class in presence of all

students and the teacher

• Report of about ten to fifteen pages to be

submitted along with the presentation

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 6

Introduction

• The solids, liquids, and gases exhibit different

characteristics on account of their different

molecular structure.

• All substances consist of vast number of

molecules separated by empty space.

• The molecules are continuously moving within

the substance.

• In solids, the molecules are closely spaced and

the attraction between molecules is large on

account of which there is very little movement of

molecules within the solid mass.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 7

Introduction

• In liquids, the spacing between the molecules is

relatively large and the force of attraction

between the molecules is relatively less due to

which the molecules can move freely within the

liquid mass but the force of attraction is sufficient

to keep the liquid together in a definite volume.

• In gases, the space between the molecules is still

larger and the force of attraction is much less due

to which the molecules of gases have greater

freedom of movement so that the gases fill

completely the container in which they are

placed.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 8

Introduction

• In spite of larger mobility and spacing of the

molecules, for mechanical analysis a fluid is

considered to be continuum (a continuous

distribution of matter with no voids or empty

spaces).

• A solid can resist tensile, compressive, and shear

forces.

• A fluid can resist only compressive force. When

subjected to a shear force, a fluid deforms

continuously as long as the force is applied.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 9

Introduction

• As the fluid flows, there exist shear stresses

between the adjacent layers.

• Gases can be compressed much readily as

compared to liquids, which may be regarded

as incompressible.

• The liquids may have a free surface.

Fluid

• A fluid may be defined as a substance which is

capable of flowing.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 10

Introduction

• It has no definite shape of its own but conforms

to the shape of the containing vessel.

• Even a small amount of shear force exerted on a

fluid will cause it to undergo a deformation which

continues as long as the force continues to be

applied.

Liquid

• A liquid is a fluid which possess a definite volume

which varies only slightly with temperature and

pressure.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 11

Introduction

Gas

• A gas is a fluid which is compressible and

possess no definite volume but it always

expands until its volume is equal to that of

container.

Vapour

• A vapour is a gas whose temperature and

pressure are such that it is very near the liquid

state.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 12

Introduction

Ideal Fluids

• Ideal fluids are those which have no viscosity and

surface tension and are incompressible.

Real Fluids

• Real fluids are those fluids which are actually

available in nature.

Fluid Mechanics

• Fluid Mechanics is that branch of Science which

deals with the behaviour of fluids at rest as well

as in motion.

Introduction

Two Distinct School of Thought

i. Classical Hydrodynamics – deals with theoretical

aspects of fluid flow, ideal fluid concept

ii. Hydraulics – deals with practical aspects of fluid

flow developed from experimental findings,

more of empirical nature

• The empirical formulae developed in hydraulics

can not be extended to fluids other than water

and in the field of Aerodynamics.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 14

Introduction

• So a new approach of Fluid Mechanics was

developed taking a balanced view of the

theorists and experimentalists.

Properties of Fluids

Mass Density

• Mass density of a fluid is the mass which it

posses per unit volume.

• It is also called specific mass.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 15

Introduction

• Symbol – 𝜌 (rho)

• Unit – kg/m3 (SI System), msl/m3 (Gravitational

System), g/cm3 (Absolute System)

• Dimension – ML-3

• Values for water – 1000 kg/m3 or 998 kg/m3, 102

msl/m3, 1 g/cm3 at 4⁰C

• It decreases with increasing temperature and

increases with increasing pressure.

• Mass density is proportional to the number of

molecules in a unit volume of fluid.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 16

Introduction

Specific Weight

• Specific weight of a fluid is the weight it posses

per unit volume.

• Symbol - 𝛾 or 𝑤

• Unit – N/m3 (SI System)

• Dimension – FL-3 or ML-2T-2

• Values for water – 9810 N/m3 or 9.79 kN/m3,

1000 kgf/m3, 981 dynes/cm3 at 4⁰C

• 𝛾 = 𝜌𝑔

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 17

Introduction

Specific Volume

• Specific volume of a fluid is the volume of the

fluid per unit weight.

1

• Specific Volume =

𝛾

• Unit – m3/N

• For gases, it may be defined as the reciprocal

of mass density.

Introduction

Specific Gravity or Relative Density

• Specific gravity is the ratio of specific weight

of a fluid to the specific weight of a standard

fluid.

• For liquids, the standard fluid is water at 4⁰C.

Whereas for gases, standard fluid may be

either hydrogen or air at some specified

temperature and pressure.

• Value for water = 1

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 19

Introduction

Viscosity

• Viscosity is that property of a fluid by virtue of

which it offers resistance to the movement of

one layer over an adjacent layer.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 20

Introduction

• It is due to cohesion and molecular momentum

exchange between fluid layers which appears as

shearing stresses between the layers.

From experiments

𝐴𝑉

𝐹∝

𝑌

A = area of the moving plate in contact with the

fluid

𝑉 𝑑𝑣

= (from similar triangles)

𝑌 𝑑𝑦

Introduction

𝐹 𝑉 𝑑𝑣

𝜏= =𝜇 =𝜇

𝐴 𝑌 𝑑𝑦

𝑑𝑣

𝜏=𝜇

𝑑𝑦

(Newton’s Law of Viscosity)

𝜇 = constant of proportionality called coefficient of

viscosity or viscosity or dynamic viscosity

Viscosity = shear stress required to produce unit

angular deformation

Introduction

Unit – N-s/m2 or kg/m-s or kgf-s/m2 or dyne-

s/cm2 or g/cm-s (poise)

1 poise = 0.1 N-s/m2

Dimension – FL-2T or ML-1T-1

Kinematic Viscosity

𝜇

𝜈=

𝜌

Unit – m2/s or cm2/s (stokes)

Introduction

• Viscosity is practically independent of pressure

but varies widely with temperature.

• For gases, viscosity increases with increase in

temperature but for liquids, it decreases with

increase in temperature.

• Because in liquids, the viscosity is governed by

the cohesive forces between the molecules,

whereas in gases, molecular activity plays a

dominant role.

Rheological Diagram

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 24

Introduction

• The fluids with which the engineers have to deal

are Newtonian and Fluid Mechanics generally

refers to Newtonian fluids.

• The study of Non-Newtonian fluids is termed as

Rheology.

Problem – 1

A cylinder of 0.3 m diameter rotates concentrically

inside a fixed cylinder 0.31 m diameter. Both the

cylinders are 0.3 m long. Determine the viscosity of

the liquid which fills the space between the

cylinders if a torque of 0.98 N-m is required to

maintain an angular velocity of 60 rpm.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 25

Introduction

Tangential velocity of the inner cylinder

2𝜋𝑁 2𝜋×60

𝑣 = 𝑟𝜔 = 𝑟 = 0.15 × = 0.943 m/s

60 60

For small spaces between the cylinders the

velocity profile may be assumed to be linear.

𝑑𝑣 𝑉 0.943

= = = 188.6 s-1

𝑑𝑦 𝑌 0.155−0.15

The torque applied to maintain the constant

angular velocity is equal to the torque due to

shear stress.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 26

Introduction

Torque = 𝜏 × 2𝜋𝑟𝑙 × 𝑟

0.98 = 𝜏 × 2𝜋 × 0.15 × 0.3 × 0.15

𝜏 = 23.11 N/m2

𝑑𝑣

𝜏=𝜇

𝑑𝑦

23.11 = 𝜇 × 188.6

𝜇 = 0.123 N-s/m2

Introduction

Problem – 2

Through a very narrow gap of height h, a thin

plate of large extent is pulled at a velocity V. On

one side of the plate is oil of viscosity 𝜇1 and on

the other side oil of viscosity 𝜇2 . Calculate the

position of the plate so that (i) the shear force

on the two sides of the plate is equal (ii) the pull

required to drag the plate is minimum.

Introduction

Case – 1

Shear stress on the upper surface of plate

𝑑𝑣 𝑉

𝜏 = 𝜇1 = 𝜇1

𝑑𝑦 ℎ−𝑦

Shear stress on the bottom surface of plate

𝑑𝑣 𝑉

𝜏 = 𝜇2 = 𝜇2

𝑑𝑦 𝑦

Equating the two

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 29

Introduction

𝑉 𝑉

𝜇1 = 𝜇2

ℎ−𝑦 𝑦

𝜇2 ℎ

𝑦=

𝜇1 + 𝜇2

Case – 2

Let F be the pull per unit area required to drag the

plate.

𝑉 𝑉

𝐹 = 𝜇1 + 𝜇2

ℎ−𝑦 𝑦

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 30

Introduction

For F to be minimum

𝑑𝐹

=0

𝑑𝑦

𝑑𝐹 𝑉 𝑉

= 𝜇1 2

− 𝜇2 2 = 0

𝑑𝑦 ℎ−𝑦 𝑦

ℎ

𝑦=

𝜇1

1+

𝜇2

Introduction

Vapour Pressure

• Vapourisation of liquids occurs because of

continuous escaping of molecules through the

free liquid surface.

• When the liquid is confined in a closed vessel, the

ejected vapour molecules get accumulated in the

space between the free liquid surface and the top

of the vessel.

• This accumulated vapour exerts a partial pressure

on the liquid surface which is known as vapour

pressure of the liquid.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 32

Introduction

• Vapour pressure increases with temperature.

• If the external absolute pressure imposed on the

liquid is reduced to such an extent that it is equal

to or less than vapour pressure, the boiling starts,

whatever be the temperature.

• In any flow system, if the pressure at any point in

the liquid approaches the vapour pressure,

vapourisation starts, resulting in pockets of

dissolved gases and vapours, which are carried by

the flow in to a region of high pressure, where

they collapse.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 33

Introduction

• Their collapse gives rise to high impact pressure,

due to which the adjoining boundaries may get

eroded and cavities are formed on them.

• This phenomenon is known as cavitation.

• Mercury has a very low vapour and hence it an

excellent fluid to be used in barometer.

Bulk Modulus of Elasticity

• All fluids may be compressed by application of

external force, and when the external force is

removed the compressed volume expands to the

original volume.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 34

Introduction

K = bulk modulus of elasticity

𝑑𝑃

𝐾=−

𝑑𝑉

𝑉

1

Compressibility =

𝐾

• Units – N/m2, kgf/m2, kgf/cm2

• Values for water – 2.1 X 109 N/m2, 2.1 X 104

kgf/cm2

• Values for air – 1.05 X 105 N/m2, 1.05 kgf/cm2

• The above values are at normal temperature and

pressure.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 35

Introduction

• Air is 20,000 times more compressible than

water.

• Values for Steel – 2.1 X 1011 N/m2, 2.1 X 106

kgf/cm2

• Water is 100 times more compressible than steel.

• Compressibility increases with increase in

pressure.

• For water, K is nearly doubled when the pressure

is increased from 1 atm to 3500 atm.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 36

Introduction

• In case of liquids, there is decrease in K with

increase in temperature. But for gases, K

increases with increase in temperature because

the pressure increases with temperature.

• K for water is very high. Therefore, the

compressibility of water may be neglected in

most of the cases.

• However, in case of sudden closure of valve or

water hammer the change in pressure is large

and sudden and the liquid is considered as

compressible.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 37

Introduction

• On the other hand, gases are easily compressible,

hence the effects of compressibility can not be

neglected.

Surface Tension

• Cohesion is the intermolecular attraction

between the molecules of the same liquid.

• Adhesion is the attraction between the molecules

of a solid boundary surface in contact with the

liquid.

• Cohesion enables a liquid to resist tensile stress

while adhesion enables it to stick to another

body.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 38

Introduction

• Surface tension is due to cohesion between liquid

particles at the surface.

• Due to attraction of liquid molecules below the

free surface, the liquid film at the surface is in

tension and small loads can be supported over it.

• This property of the liquid surface film to exert a

tension is called the surface tension.

• Symbol - 𝜎

• It is the force required to maintain unit length of

film in equilibrium.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 39

Introduction

• Unit – N/m, kgf/m, kgf/cm

• Dimension – FL-1 or MT-2

• Surface tension for all liquids decreases as

temperature rises.

• It is also dependent on the fluid in contact with

liquid surface.

• The surface tension is usually quoted in contact

with air.

• Values for water – 0.075 N/m or 0.0075 kgf/m at

19⁰C and 0.06 N/m or 0.006 kgf/m at 100⁰C

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 40

Introduction

• When a droplet is separated from the main body

of liquid, then due to surface tension there is a

net inward force exerted over the entire surface

of the droplet, which causes the surface of the

droplet to contract from all sides resulting in

increase in internal pressure within the droplet.

• This contraction continues till the inward force

due to surface tension is balanced with the

internal pressure and the droplets forms in to

spheres, which is the shape for minimum surface

area.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 41

Introduction

Internal Pressure inside a Droplet

𝑝 = internal pressure in excess of outside pressure

intensity

𝑝 × 𝜋𝑟 2 = 𝜎 × 2𝜋𝑟

2𝜎

𝑝=

𝑟

Internal Pressure inside a Soap Bubble

𝑝 × 𝜋𝑟 2 = 2 × 𝜎 × 2𝜋𝑟

4𝜎

𝑝=

𝑟

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 42

Introduction

Internal Pressure inside a Liquid Jet

𝑝 × 2𝑟𝑙 = 𝜎 × 2𝑙

𝜎

𝑝=

𝑟

Capillarity

• Capillarity is due to both cohesion and adhesion.

• Capillary Rise – The liquid has greater adhesion

than cohesion. The liquid will wet the solid

surface. It is concave upward. 𝜃 < 90°. There is

decrease in pressure within the liquid.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 43

Introduction

• Capillary Depression – Cohesion

predominates. The liquid will not wet the solid

surface. It is concave downward. 𝜃 > 90°.

There is increase in pressure within the liquid.

• Such phenomenon of rise or fall of liquid

surface relative to the adjacent general level

of liquid is known as capillarity.

• Unit – mm

ℎ = capillary rise or depression

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 44

Introduction

𝜋𝑟 2 ℎ × 𝛾 = 2𝜋𝑟 × 𝜎𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜃

2𝜎𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜃

ℎ=

𝛾𝑟

𝜃 for water and glass = 0

2𝜎

ℎ=

𝛾𝑟

Assumption – Meniscus is a section of sphere and

surfaces are clean.

This is true when r < 2.5 mm

The capillary rise decreases as the diameter

increases.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 45

Introduction

• For diameters ≥ 6 mm, the capillary rise is

negligible.

• As the diameter increases the meniscus

becomes less spherical and the gravitational

forces become more appreciable.

• In manometers, the tubes of diameter > 6

mm should be used.

2𝜎𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜃

• Capillary depression, ℎ =

𝑟 𝛾1 −𝛾2

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 46

Introduction

• Capillary rise between parallel plates placed at

2𝜎𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜃

t distance apart, ℎ =

𝛾𝑡

Problem – 3

What is the pressure within a droplet of water

0.05 mm in diameter at 20 ⁰C, if the pressure

outside the droplet is standard atmospheric

pressure of 1.03 × 105 N/m2. Given that 𝜎 =

0.075 N/m for water at 20⁰C.

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 47

Introduction

p = internal pressure in excess of outside

pressure

2𝜎

𝑝=

𝑟

0.05

Radius = = 0.025 𝑚𝑚

2

2×0.75 3 2

𝑝= = 6 × 10 N/m

0.025×10−3

Pressure within the droplet of water = 1.03 X 105

+ 6 X 103 = 1.09 X 105 N/m2

Monsoon Semester, 2017-2018 48

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