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CE - 4007

Fluid Mechanics - I

Dr. Anand Kr. Sinha


Professor (Civil and Environmental Engineering)
Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra

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Civil Engineering
• Structural Engineering
• Geotechnical Engineering
• Water Resources Engineering
• Environmental Engineering
• Transportation Engineering
• Other Specialisations like Surveying,
Construction Technology etc

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Water Resources Engineering
• Fluid Mechanics – I
• Fluid Mechanics – II
• Irrigation Engineering and Hydrology
Electives
• Dam and Water Power Engineering
• Ground Water Engineering
• Watershed Engineering and Management

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Fluid Mechanics
Fluid Mechanics – I
• Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Fluid
Properties, Fluid Statics, Fluid Kinematics,
Fluid Dynamics, Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow,
Boundary Layer, Drag and Lift, Dimensional
Analysis, Hydraulic Similitude, Hydraulic
Model
Fluid Mechanics – II
• Open Channel Flow, Hydraulic Machines
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Fluid Mechanics - I
• Introduction
• Fluid Statics
• Kinematics of Fluid Flow
• Dynamics of Fluid Flow
• Laminar and Turbulent Flows
• Boundary Layer Concept
• Dimensional Analysis and Hydraulic Similitude

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Fluid Mechanics - I
Portion up to Mid Semester Examination
• Introduction
• Fluid Statics
• Kinematics of Fluid Flow
Teachers Internal Assessment
• Term Paper Presentation – 15 Marks
• To be presented in the class in presence of all
students and the teacher
• Report of about ten to fifteen pages to be
submitted along with the presentation
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Introduction
• The solids, liquids, and gases exhibit different
characteristics on account of their different
molecular structure.
• All substances consist of vast number of
molecules separated by empty space.
• The molecules are continuously moving within
the substance.
• In solids, the molecules are closely spaced and
the attraction between molecules is large on
account of which there is very little movement of
molecules within the solid mass.
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Introduction
• In liquids, the spacing between the molecules is
relatively large and the force of attraction
between the molecules is relatively less due to
which the molecules can move freely within the
liquid mass but the force of attraction is sufficient
to keep the liquid together in a definite volume.
• In gases, the space between the molecules is still
larger and the force of attraction is much less due
to which the molecules of gases have greater
freedom of movement so that the gases fill
completely the container in which they are
placed.
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Introduction
• In spite of larger mobility and spacing of the
molecules, for mechanical analysis a fluid is
considered to be continuum (a continuous
distribution of matter with no voids or empty
spaces).
• A solid can resist tensile, compressive, and shear
forces.
• A fluid can resist only compressive force. When
subjected to a shear force, a fluid deforms
continuously as long as the force is applied.
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Introduction
• As the fluid flows, there exist shear stresses
between the adjacent layers.
• Gases can be compressed much readily as
compared to liquids, which may be regarded
as incompressible.
• The liquids may have a free surface.
Fluid
• A fluid may be defined as a substance which is
capable of flowing.
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Introduction
• It has no definite shape of its own but conforms
to the shape of the containing vessel.
• Even a small amount of shear force exerted on a
fluid will cause it to undergo a deformation which
continues as long as the force continues to be
applied.
Liquid
• A liquid is a fluid which possess a definite volume
which varies only slightly with temperature and
pressure.
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Introduction
Gas
• A gas is a fluid which is compressible and
possess no definite volume but it always
expands until its volume is equal to that of
container.
Vapour
• A vapour is a gas whose temperature and
pressure are such that it is very near the liquid
state.
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Introduction
Ideal Fluids
• Ideal fluids are those which have no viscosity and
surface tension and are incompressible.
Real Fluids
• Real fluids are those fluids which are actually
available in nature.
Fluid Mechanics
• Fluid Mechanics is that branch of Science which
deals with the behaviour of fluids at rest as well
as in motion.

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Introduction
Two Distinct School of Thought
i. Classical Hydrodynamics – deals with theoretical
aspects of fluid flow, ideal fluid concept
ii. Hydraulics – deals with practical aspects of fluid
flow developed from experimental findings,
more of empirical nature
• The empirical formulae developed in hydraulics
can not be extended to fluids other than water
and in the field of Aerodynamics.
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Introduction
• So a new approach of Fluid Mechanics was
developed taking a balanced view of the
theorists and experimentalists.
Properties of Fluids
Mass Density
• Mass density of a fluid is the mass which it
posses per unit volume.
• It is also called specific mass.
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Introduction
• Symbol – 𝜌 (rho)
• Unit – kg/m3 (SI System), msl/m3 (Gravitational
System), g/cm3 (Absolute System)
• Dimension – ML-3
• Values for water – 1000 kg/m3 or 998 kg/m3, 102
msl/m3, 1 g/cm3 at 4⁰C
• It decreases with increasing temperature and
increases with increasing pressure.
• Mass density is proportional to the number of
molecules in a unit volume of fluid.
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Introduction
Specific Weight
• Specific weight of a fluid is the weight it posses
per unit volume.
• Symbol - 𝛾 or 𝑤
• Unit – N/m3 (SI System)
• Dimension – FL-3 or ML-2T-2
• Values for water – 9810 N/m3 or 9.79 kN/m3,
1000 kgf/m3, 981 dynes/cm3 at 4⁰C
• 𝛾 = 𝜌𝑔
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Introduction
Specific Volume
• Specific volume of a fluid is the volume of the
fluid per unit weight.
1
• Specific Volume =
𝛾
• Unit – m3/N
• For gases, it may be defined as the reciprocal
of mass density.

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Introduction
Specific Gravity or Relative Density
• Specific gravity is the ratio of specific weight
of a fluid to the specific weight of a standard
fluid.
• For liquids, the standard fluid is water at 4⁰C.
Whereas for gases, standard fluid may be
either hydrogen or air at some specified
temperature and pressure.
• Value for water = 1
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Introduction

Viscosity
• Viscosity is that property of a fluid by virtue of
which it offers resistance to the movement of
one layer over an adjacent layer.
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Introduction
• It is due to cohesion and molecular momentum
exchange between fluid layers which appears as
shearing stresses between the layers.
From experiments
𝐴𝑉
𝐹∝
𝑌
A = area of the moving plate in contact with the
fluid
𝑉 𝑑𝑣
= (from similar triangles)
𝑌 𝑑𝑦

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Introduction
𝐹 𝑉 𝑑𝑣
𝜏= =𝜇 =𝜇
𝐴 𝑌 𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝑣
𝜏=𝜇
𝑑𝑦
(Newton’s Law of Viscosity)
𝜇 = constant of proportionality called coefficient of
viscosity or viscosity or dynamic viscosity
Viscosity = shear stress required to produce unit
angular deformation

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Introduction
Unit – N-s/m2 or kg/m-s or kgf-s/m2 or dyne-
s/cm2 or g/cm-s (poise)
1 poise = 0.1 N-s/m2
Dimension – FL-2T or ML-1T-1
Kinematic Viscosity
𝜇
𝜈=
𝜌
Unit – m2/s or cm2/s (stokes)

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Introduction
• Viscosity is practically independent of pressure
but varies widely with temperature.
• For gases, viscosity increases with increase in
temperature but for liquids, it decreases with
increase in temperature.
• Because in liquids, the viscosity is governed by
the cohesive forces between the molecules,
whereas in gases, molecular activity plays a
dominant role.
Rheological Diagram
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Introduction
• The fluids with which the engineers have to deal
are Newtonian and Fluid Mechanics generally
refers to Newtonian fluids.
• The study of Non-Newtonian fluids is termed as
Rheology.
Problem – 1
A cylinder of 0.3 m diameter rotates concentrically
inside a fixed cylinder 0.31 m diameter. Both the
cylinders are 0.3 m long. Determine the viscosity of
the liquid which fills the space between the
cylinders if a torque of 0.98 N-m is required to
maintain an angular velocity of 60 rpm.
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Introduction
Tangential velocity of the inner cylinder
2𝜋𝑁 2𝜋×60
𝑣 = 𝑟𝜔 = 𝑟 = 0.15 × = 0.943 m/s
60 60
For small spaces between the cylinders the
velocity profile may be assumed to be linear.
𝑑𝑣 𝑉 0.943
= = = 188.6 s-1
𝑑𝑦 𝑌 0.155−0.15
The torque applied to maintain the constant
angular velocity is equal to the torque due to
shear stress.
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Introduction
Torque = 𝜏 × 2𝜋𝑟𝑙 × 𝑟
0.98 = 𝜏 × 2𝜋 × 0.15 × 0.3 × 0.15
𝜏 = 23.11 N/m2
𝑑𝑣
𝜏=𝜇
𝑑𝑦
23.11 = 𝜇 × 188.6
𝜇 = 0.123 N-s/m2

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Introduction
Problem – 2
Through a very narrow gap of height h, a thin
plate of large extent is pulled at a velocity V. On
one side of the plate is oil of viscosity 𝜇1 and on
the other side oil of viscosity 𝜇2 . Calculate the
position of the plate so that (i) the shear force
on the two sides of the plate is equal (ii) the pull
required to drag the plate is minimum.

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Introduction
Case – 1
Shear stress on the upper surface of plate
𝑑𝑣 𝑉
𝜏 = 𝜇1 = 𝜇1
𝑑𝑦 ℎ−𝑦
Shear stress on the bottom surface of plate
𝑑𝑣 𝑉
𝜏 = 𝜇2 = 𝜇2
𝑑𝑦 𝑦
Equating the two
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Introduction
𝑉 𝑉
𝜇1 = 𝜇2
ℎ−𝑦 𝑦
𝜇2 ℎ
𝑦=
𝜇1 + 𝜇2
Case – 2
Let F be the pull per unit area required to drag the
plate.
𝑉 𝑉
𝐹 = 𝜇1 + 𝜇2
ℎ−𝑦 𝑦
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Introduction
For F to be minimum
𝑑𝐹
=0
𝑑𝑦
𝑑𝐹 𝑉 𝑉
= 𝜇1 2
− 𝜇2 2 = 0
𝑑𝑦 ℎ−𝑦 𝑦

𝑦=
𝜇1
1+
𝜇2

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Introduction
Vapour Pressure
• Vapourisation of liquids occurs because of
continuous escaping of molecules through the
free liquid surface.
• When the liquid is confined in a closed vessel, the
ejected vapour molecules get accumulated in the
space between the free liquid surface and the top
of the vessel.
• This accumulated vapour exerts a partial pressure
on the liquid surface which is known as vapour
pressure of the liquid.
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Introduction
• Vapour pressure increases with temperature.
• If the external absolute pressure imposed on the
liquid is reduced to such an extent that it is equal
to or less than vapour pressure, the boiling starts,
whatever be the temperature.
• In any flow system, if the pressure at any point in
the liquid approaches the vapour pressure,
vapourisation starts, resulting in pockets of
dissolved gases and vapours, which are carried by
the flow in to a region of high pressure, where
they collapse.
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Introduction
• Their collapse gives rise to high impact pressure,
due to which the adjoining boundaries may get
eroded and cavities are formed on them.
• This phenomenon is known as cavitation.
• Mercury has a very low vapour and hence it an
excellent fluid to be used in barometer.
Bulk Modulus of Elasticity
• All fluids may be compressed by application of
external force, and when the external force is
removed the compressed volume expands to the
original volume.
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Introduction
K = bulk modulus of elasticity
𝑑𝑃
𝐾=−
𝑑𝑉
𝑉
1
Compressibility =
𝐾
• Units – N/m2, kgf/m2, kgf/cm2
• Values for water – 2.1 X 109 N/m2, 2.1 X 104
kgf/cm2
• Values for air – 1.05 X 105 N/m2, 1.05 kgf/cm2
• The above values are at normal temperature and
pressure.
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Introduction
• Air is 20,000 times more compressible than
water.
• Values for Steel – 2.1 X 1011 N/m2, 2.1 X 106
kgf/cm2
• Water is 100 times more compressible than steel.
• Compressibility increases with increase in
pressure.
• For water, K is nearly doubled when the pressure
is increased from 1 atm to 3500 atm.
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Introduction
• In case of liquids, there is decrease in K with
increase in temperature. But for gases, K
increases with increase in temperature because
the pressure increases with temperature.
• K for water is very high. Therefore, the
compressibility of water may be neglected in
most of the cases.
• However, in case of sudden closure of valve or
water hammer the change in pressure is large
and sudden and the liquid is considered as
compressible.
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Introduction
• On the other hand, gases are easily compressible,
hence the effects of compressibility can not be
neglected.
Surface Tension
• Cohesion is the intermolecular attraction
between the molecules of the same liquid.
• Adhesion is the attraction between the molecules
of a solid boundary surface in contact with the
liquid.
• Cohesion enables a liquid to resist tensile stress
while adhesion enables it to stick to another
body.
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Introduction
• Surface tension is due to cohesion between liquid
particles at the surface.
• Due to attraction of liquid molecules below the
free surface, the liquid film at the surface is in
tension and small loads can be supported over it.
• This property of the liquid surface film to exert a
tension is called the surface tension.
• Symbol - 𝜎
• It is the force required to maintain unit length of
film in equilibrium.
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Introduction
• Unit – N/m, kgf/m, kgf/cm
• Dimension – FL-1 or MT-2
• Surface tension for all liquids decreases as
temperature rises.
• It is also dependent on the fluid in contact with
liquid surface.
• The surface tension is usually quoted in contact
with air.
• Values for water – 0.075 N/m or 0.0075 kgf/m at
19⁰C and 0.06 N/m or 0.006 kgf/m at 100⁰C
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Introduction
• When a droplet is separated from the main body
of liquid, then due to surface tension there is a
net inward force exerted over the entire surface
of the droplet, which causes the surface of the
droplet to contract from all sides resulting in
increase in internal pressure within the droplet.
• This contraction continues till the inward force
due to surface tension is balanced with the
internal pressure and the droplets forms in to
spheres, which is the shape for minimum surface
area.
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Introduction
Internal Pressure inside a Droplet
𝑝 = internal pressure in excess of outside pressure
intensity
𝑝 × 𝜋𝑟 2 = 𝜎 × 2𝜋𝑟
2𝜎
𝑝=
𝑟
Internal Pressure inside a Soap Bubble
𝑝 × 𝜋𝑟 2 = 2 × 𝜎 × 2𝜋𝑟
4𝜎
𝑝=
𝑟
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Introduction
Internal Pressure inside a Liquid Jet
𝑝 × 2𝑟𝑙 = 𝜎 × 2𝑙
𝜎
𝑝=
𝑟
Capillarity
• Capillarity is due to both cohesion and adhesion.
• Capillary Rise – The liquid has greater adhesion
than cohesion. The liquid will wet the solid
surface. It is concave upward. 𝜃 < 90°. There is
decrease in pressure within the liquid.
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Introduction
• Capillary Depression – Cohesion
predominates. The liquid will not wet the solid
surface. It is concave downward. 𝜃 > 90°.
There is increase in pressure within the liquid.
• Such phenomenon of rise or fall of liquid
surface relative to the adjacent general level
of liquid is known as capillarity.
• Unit – mm
ℎ = capillary rise or depression
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Introduction
𝜋𝑟 2 ℎ × 𝛾 = 2𝜋𝑟 × 𝜎𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜃
2𝜎𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜃
ℎ=
𝛾𝑟
𝜃 for water and glass = 0
2𝜎
ℎ=
𝛾𝑟
Assumption – Meniscus is a section of sphere and
surfaces are clean.
This is true when r < 2.5 mm
The capillary rise decreases as the diameter
increases.
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Introduction
• For diameters ≥ 6 mm, the capillary rise is
negligible.
• As the diameter increases the meniscus
becomes less spherical and the gravitational
forces become more appreciable.
• In manometers, the tubes of diameter > 6
mm should be used.
2𝜎𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜃
• Capillary depression, ℎ =
𝑟 𝛾1 −𝛾2
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Introduction
• Capillary rise between parallel plates placed at
2𝜎𝐶𝑜𝑠𝜃
t distance apart, ℎ =
𝛾𝑡
Problem – 3
What is the pressure within a droplet of water
0.05 mm in diameter at 20 ⁰C, if the pressure
outside the droplet is standard atmospheric
pressure of 1.03 × 105 N/m2. Given that 𝜎 =
0.075 N/m for water at 20⁰C.
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Introduction
p = internal pressure in excess of outside
pressure
2𝜎
𝑝=
𝑟
0.05
Radius = = 0.025 𝑚𝑚
2
2×0.75 3 2
𝑝= = 6 × 10 N/m
0.025×10−3
Pressure within the droplet of water = 1.03 X 105
+ 6 X 103 = 1.09 X 105 N/m2
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