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Tsunami 2004

• The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake

was an undersea earthquake that
occurred on December 26, 2004, with
an epicenter off the west coast of
Sumatra, Indonesia.
• The earthquake was caused by
subduction and triggered a series of
tsunamis along the coasts of most
landmasses bordering the Indian
2004 Indian Ocean T-Sunami

• Date: December 26, 2004 Magnitude 9.3

• Depth: 30 km
• Type: undersea (subduction) earthquake
• Countries/regions affected: Indonesia (mainly in Aceh), Sri Lanka, India
(mostly in Tamil Nadu), Thailand.
• Deaths: 229,866 / 2nd deadliest earthquake of all time
Amplitude of the wave
Waves up to 30 meters and 100 feet high!!!
2004 Indian Ocean T-Sunami

• It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in

history. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and
Thailand were hardest hit.
• With a magnitude of between 9.1 and 9.3, it is
the second largest earthquake ever recorded on
a seismograph.
• This earthquake had the longest duration of
faulting ever observed, between 8 to 10
Primary effects of the tsunami

• The wave killed people in 14 different countries around the Indian Ocean totaling
over 230,000.
• The highest death toll was on the Indonesian island of Sumatra where over 130,000
were killed and over 30,000 remain missing.
• In Sumatra over 500,000 people were made homeless, over 80,000 houses were
destroyed as well as serious damage to any ports, boats, roads, bridges, hospitals,
forests and crops within 1km
• Some people were killed in South Africa which is over 8000km from the epicenter
and over 8000 tourists from Australia, Europe and America were also killed
• In Sri Lanka, a train was derailed by the force of the wave killing over 1000
• Secondary effects of the tsunami
• Diseases such as cholera and dysentery spread due to the lack of clean water and
sanitation in the refugee camps killing an estimated 150,000
• Incomes were lost due to the destruction of fishing boats and damage to the ocean
• Loss of foreign income from tourism was significant in Thailand
• Emotional and psychological impacts on the survivors and aid workers
• Land disputes broke out as documents were lost in the devastation and in some cases
land was destroyed by erosion from the wave
Affected Countries

• Indonesia , Sri Lanka ,Thailand ,India ,Somalia, Myanmar, Maldives,

Malaysia, Bangladesh, Tanzania, South Africa, Madagascar, Yemen
• Tourists from all over world also got affected.
• Total Deaths Occurred - 2,30,187
• Total Injured – 1,25,000(approx.)
• Total missing – 45,752(Confirmed)
• Total displaced – 16,90,000(approx.)
Effects On INDIA

• Affected states and Union territories Andaman and Nicobar islands,

Pondicherry, Tamilnadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh
• Coastal area affected – 2700 kms.
• Deaths Occurred – 18,045
• Missing – 6,000(approx.)
• Displaced – 6,50,000(approx.)
Performance of Structures
• Housing
Houses up to 300 m. away from sea totally destroyed.
Even up to 1 km. houses were spoiled by the tsunami.
• Ports
Ports also damaged because of sand carried by waves.
Roads and railways significantly damaged by waves
Effects on Fishing industry

• The greatest damage was suffered by

the fishing industry.
• Most of the coastal population lost their
• Most of the fishermen in affected areas
lost their fishing nets and advised not to
catch fishes until sea is stabled.
Short term responses

• Over $7billion was provided by governments and NGOs (charities) in the aid
effort and to help with reconstruction
• Up to 5 million people had to be relocated into temporary refugee camps and
had to be provided with shelter, food and water
• It took months to simply clear the debris before rebuilding could start again
Long term responses

• The Indonesian government decided to relocate the people from the refugee
camps straight into new homes. The building of these new home took a lot
longer than expected due to the lack of building materials and destruction of
main transport routes.
• An tsunami early warning system has been installed in the Indian Ocean at a
cost of $20 million
Helping Out

• Helping hand came from all over the world. Charity funds were organized in
large amount.
• Nations all over the world provided over US$14 billion in aid for damaged
• Organizations like UNO, World bank, Euro nations and various social groups
came forward in relief work.
Blogs and websites
for relief work
• Tsunamihelp - News and information about resources, aid, donations and
volunteer efforts by a volunteer team of bloggers.
• - Well organized lists of all essential information related to
Indian relief efforts.
• True North Foundation - Reports of relief work and help required from
• - Contact numbers and Contributions towards the relief
• Tsunami Locator - list of resources to support the those searching for missing

• tsunamis can be very dangerous and deadly. As we do not have the power to
control or predict and detect tsunamis because they are under water waves
they become even more dangerous and deadly and make them even more
difficult to escape.
• Tsunamis can damage a lot of property and life and usually leave a panic for
the human basic necessities.