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• Classical rhetoric
• medieval period
• enlightenment period
• modern rhetoric
• visual rhetoric
Classical rhetoric

• is the perception of how language works when

written or spoken aloud or becoming proficient
in speaking or writing due to proficiency in this
• is a combination of persuasion and argument,
broken into three branches and five cannons as
dictated by the Greek teachers Plato, the
Sophists, Cicero, Quintilian, and Aristotle.
Three branches of classical
•deliberative rhetoric
• judicial rhetoric/Forensic
•epideictic rhetoric/ ceremonial
Deliberative rhetoric or

• the speech or writing that attempts to

get an audience to take or not to take
an action, focusing on the things to
come and what the crowd can do to
influence the outcome.
• Example: debate, political oratory
Forensic or judicial rhetoric
• Deals more with determining the justice
or injustice of an accusation or charge
that happened in the present, dealing
with the past.
• Applies more to lawyers and judges who
determine the core value of justice.
• discourse is primarily employed by
lawyers in trials decided by a judge or
Epideictic rhetoric/
• deals with praising or blaming someone
or something. It largely applies to
speeches and writings such as obituaries,
letters of recommendation and
sometimes even literary works.
• funeral orations, obituaries, graduation
and retirement speeches, letters of
recommendation, and nominating
speeches at political conventions.
Medieval Rethoric
• refers to the study and practice of rhetoric from
approximately A.D. 400 (with the publication of St.
Augustine's On Christian Doctrine) to 1400.
• two of the most influential works were Cicero's De
Inventione (On Invention) and the anonymous Rhetorica
ad Herennium (the oldest complete Latin textbook on
• "medieval rhetoric was far more than a mere
transmission of mummified traditions that were poorly
understood by those who transmitted them. (Thomas
Applications of Rhetoric in
the Middle Ages
• “the art of rhetoric contributed during the period from the
fourth to the fourteenth century not only to the methods of
speaking and writing well, of composing letters and petitions,
sermons and prayers, legal documents and briefs, poetry and
prose, but to the canons of interpreting laws and scripture, to
the dialectical devices of discovery and proof, to the
establishment of the scholastic method which was to come
into universal use in philosophy and theology, and finally to
the formulation of scientific inquiry which was to separate
philosophy from theology."
(Richard McKeon, "Rhetoric in the Middle Ages." Speculum,
January 1942)
Three Rhetorical Genres

• ars praedicandi
- provided a method for developing
• ars dictaminis
- developed precepts for letter writing
• ars poetriae
- suggested guidelines for composing
prose and poetry.
Medieval Rethoric
• The Ciceronian Tradition
- "Conventional medieval rhetoric promotes highly
formalized, formulaic, and ceremoniously institutionalized
forms of discourse.
A Rhetoric of Forms and Formats
- "Medieval rhetoric added to ancient systems its own
generic rules, which were necessary because documents
themselves had come to stand in for the people as well as
for the Word that they meant to convey. By following
articulated patterns for greeting, informing, and taking
leave of the now-distant and temporarily removed
'audience,' the letter, sermon, or saint's life acquired
typical (typological) forms."
Medieval Rethoric
• Christian Adaptations of Roman Rhetoric
- evolved within the dual influences of Greco-
Roman and Christian belief systems and cultures.
Enlightenment Rhetoric

• refers to the study and practice

of rhetoric from the mid-seventeenth
century to the early part of the
nineteenth century.
• Bacon and Locke on Rhetoric
- accepted that while logic could inform
the reason, rhetoric was necessary to rouse
the will to action.
Modern/New rhetoric
• New rhetoric is a catch-all term for various
efforts in the modern era to revive, redefine,
and/or broaden the scope of classical
rhetoric in light of contemporary theory and
practice. Also known as rhetorical genre studies.
• Major contributors: Kenneth Burke (one of the
first to use the term new rhetoric) and Chaim
Perelman (who used the term as the title of an
influential book).
The New Rhetoric of
Kenneth Burke
• "The difference between the 'old' rhetoric and
the 'new' rhetoric may be summed up in this
manner: whereas the key term for the 'old'
rhetoric was persuasion and its stress was upon
deliberate design, the key term for the 'new'
rhetoric is identification and this may include
partially 'unconscious' factors in its appeal.
Identification, at its simplest level, may be a
deliberate device, or a means, as when
a speaker identifies his interests with those of
his audience.
The New Rhetoric of Chaïm
Perelman and Lucie
Olbrechts-Tyteca (1958)
• "The new rhetoric is defined as a theory
of argumentation that has as its object the study
of discursive techniques and that aims to
provoke or to increase the adherence of men's
minds to the theses that are presented for their
assent. It also examines the conditions that allow
argumentation to begin and be developed, as
well as the effects produced by this
Visual Rhetoric
• is a branch of rhetorical studies concerned with
the persuasive use of images, whether on their own or in the
company of words.
• Visual rhetoric is grounded in an expanded notion of rhetoric
that involves "not only the study of literature and speech, but
of culture, art, and even science" (Kenney and Scott
in Persuasive Imagery, 2003).
• "Not every visual object is visual rhetoric. What turns a visual
object into a communicative artifact-a symbol that
communicates and can be studied as rhetoric--is the presence
of three characteristics. The image must be symbolic, involve
human intervention, and be presented to an audience for the
purpose of communicating with that audience." (Kenneth
Louis Smith, Handbook of Visual Communication. Routledge,
Visual Rhetoric in Politics
"It is easy to dismiss images in politics and public discourse as mere
spectacle, opportunities for entertainment rather than engagement,
because visual images transfix us so readily.
Politicians are at least as likely to employ managed photo
opportunities to create an impression as they are to speak from the
bully pulpit with facts, figures, and rational arguments.

"In 2007, conservative critics assailed then candidate Barack Obama

for his decision not to wear an American flag pin. They sought to
frame his choice as evidence of his presumed disloyalty and lack of
patriotism. Even after Obama explained his position, the criticism
persisted from those who lectured him on the importance of the
flag as a symbol." (Yohuru Williams, "When Microaggressions
Become Macro Confessions." Huffington Post, June 29, 2015)
Visual Rhetoric in
"Advertising constitutes a dominant genre of
visual rhetoric . Like verbal rhetoric, visual rhetoric
depends on strategies of identification;
advertising's rhetoric is dominated by appeals to
gender as the primary marker of consumer
identity." (Diane Hope, "Gendered Environments,"
in Defining Visual Rhetorics, ed. by C. A. Hill and
M. H. Helmers, 2004).
Kanon(Tuntunin/Kautusan) ng Retorika

Deliberi/delivery Pagsasaayos/arrangement

Memorya/memory Istilo/style
• invenire - to find o para makahanap

• ano sasabihin ng isang awtor

• kategoriya ng pag-iisip na naging kumbensyonal

nang hanguan ng mga retorikal na materyales.

• tumutukoy sa malinaw na proseso ng paghahanap

ng mga argumento na magagamit para sa isang
talumpati na maaaring sa paraang induktibo o
• Nakatuon sa kung paano pagsusunud-sunurin ang
isang pahayag o akda.

• Ang pagkakaroon ng lohika at mabisang

paglalahad, kumakatawan sa kahusayan ng
• masining na ekspresyon ng mga

• kung paano sasabihin.

• Hindi incidental, superpisyal o


• Hindi opsyonal. Ito ay esensyal

• tumutukoy sa bahagi ng isinasaulo
ang isang talumpati o mga
mahahalagang punto ng isang
talumpati upang maging maayos
ang pagbigkas nito sa harap ng

• nauugnay sa mnemonics o memory

aids na tumutulong sa isang orador
na masaulo ang kanyang talumpati.
• mahalaga sa rhetorical

• binibigyan diin sa mga

pagtatalakay ng exercitatio o
practice exercises at naipapakita
sa deklamasyon ng mga
retorikal na edukasyon

• orihinal na tinatawag na
pasalitang retorika na ginagamit
sa pampublikong konteksto