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 Confusion surrounding AI – its applications in healthcare and

even its definition – remains widespread in popular media.
Today, AI is shorthand for any task a computer can perform
just as well as, if not better than, humans.
 But there are different forms of computer intelligence to
consider when thinking about its role in medicine.
 Most of the computer-generated solutions now emerging in
healthcare do not rely on independent computer intelligence.
Rather, they use human-created algorithms as the basis for
analyzing data and recommending treatments.
 Most of the computer-generated solutions now emerging in
healthcare do not rely on independent computer intelligence.
Rather, they use human-created algorithms as the basis for
analyzing data and recommending treatments.
 By contrast, “machine learning” relies on neural networks (a
computer system modeled on the human brain). Such
applications involve multilevel probabilistic analysis, allowing
computers to simulate and even expand on the way the human
mind processes data. As a result, not even the programmers
can be sure how their computer programs will derive solutions.
 AI can be sliced and diced many different ways, but the best
way to understand its potential use in healthcare is to break
down its applications into three separate categories: algorithmic
solutions, visual tools and medical practice.
 Over the last 10 years, we have come to see robots perform
and execute jobs that were once exclusive to humans – be it,
manufacturing cars or filling warehouse orders.
 As of today, we are no strangers to the fact that there are
multiple industries that AI/ML have significantly impacted
over the last couple years. However, the integration of
Artificial Intelligence in healthcare with a chatbot as your
doctor is set to witness a significant paradigm shift.
 A chatbot is a computer program or an artificial intelligence-based
algorithm that conducts a conversation, either via voice or text.
The market research firm Grand View Research estimates that
the global chatbot market will reach $1.23 billion by 2025, and a
significant part of that growth will go down in healthcare.
 Chatbots are essentially applications powered by smart
algorithms (eventually artificial intelligence or AI) which help
patients track and make sense of their health data, support
medication management, and disperse simple medical advice. In
some cases, health chatbots are also able to connect patients
with clinicians for diagnosis or treatment, but that is already one
step further down the line.
How Do These AI-Powered Chatbots
 Chatbots reside in the most commonly used apps and in the form
of assistants on various websites where they can converse with
the users.
 AI enables them to learn with each conversation and respond
with greater efficiency next time. With advanced machine learning
algorithms and natural language processing enabled, these
chatbots can create maps linking symptoms and diseases.
 Chatbots in the industry for medical care, ask some standard
questions and help create a profile based on age, sex, and
medical history. They can record the user's history and analyze
symptoms based on user's inputs.
 They can also use image and voice processing to record and
match symptoms against the database
What Is the Current Scene of Chatbots
in the Field of Healthcare?
 Chatbots for the healthcare sector have come far from the days of ELIZA.
Today, they can help book appointments, ensure appropriate medicine
dosages, and even suggest solutions.
 There are multiple chatbots that have found widescale acceptance as both
patients and doctors have realized the aid they have provided in the process.
 Your Health- MD, which claims the largest database linkages of symptoms and
diseases, is one of the most popular chatbots invested in this industry. It can
predict the probability of a disease and thereafter make book appointments
with the right doctor.
 Florence is another chatbot that can act as a post-diagnosis personal nurse. It
can put proper reminders for the medicines and suggest remedies if you miss
any doses.
 There are many more popular chatbots in the healthcare industry today like
Safe Drug bot and Sim Sensei.
 And with increasing acceptance, they are learning and evolving daily.
How will a healthcare chatbot work?
On four different structures namely –
 Natural Language Processing
 Knowledge Management
 Deep Learning
 Sentiment Analysis
 Natural language processing is used to assess and understand a
patient’s queries and is closely followed by knowledge
management when it comes to providing an answer. Deep
learning assists the healthcare chatbot in improving the for each
interaction while sentiment analysis identifies the user’s
frustration and hands over the conversation to a human.
 With time, deep learning will help the healthcare bot in
ameliorating the responses for every single interaction and also
generate context-based replies through Natural Language
 This way, a chatbot would be a better fit when it comes to patient
engagement as compared to a standalone mobile application.
 Down the line, the healthcare chatbot’s function of being able
to answer fundamental questions on health management will
get even better as it will be constantly assessed and will
learn from its own mistakes.
 The best part? This process will not be limited to just one
bot. The entire fleet of chatbots deployed in that particular
vertical/service will learn from the past mistakes and
continuously improve. With bots processing information
rapidly, through sentiment analysis, they will learn when to
direct the patient to a physician’s attention or call for help
How do you go about implementing a
healthcare bot?
 Healthcare companies ideally need to formulate an effective strategy for
implementing emerging technologies like chatbots and AI by first defining the
bot’s scope of knowledge.
 What is the one key thing all healthcare organizations aim for? An enhanced
patient experience.
 For an unparalleled patient experience, your healthcare chatbot must come
across as natural and straightforward while being available round the clock,
understand and empathize with the patient and ultimately engage them in
conversation by providing personalized and intelligent recommendations.
 Post that, you must also leverage cutting-edge technologies and machine
learning for your chatbot to get smarter over time as it starts receiving more
data through patient interactions. Lastly, healthcare organizations should have
a repository of data that is inclusive of their FAQs, online forms, email and call
center records which the bot can leverage to further personalize the
Should we expect a bot revolution in
the Healthcare industry?
 Chatbots and Artificial Intelligence today are already revolutionizing
different industries, including banking, hospitality, and e-commerce to
name a few. Intelligent chatbots in healthcare will be a crawl-walk-run
endeavor, where the easier tasks will move to chatbots immediately.
 Doubtless, to say, the healthcare sector will definitely benefit from the
cost-effectiveness of bots with the customer care aspect being
automated. The impersonal nature of a bot could act as a benefit in
certain situations, where an actual doctor is not needed.
 We’re very close to the time where the bot would notify the user that it is
time for their health check-up based on past medical records and
schedule an appointment, or book a pathology lab visit to your home for
your quarterly sugar test.
 It is safe to say that the healthcare industry is right on the verge of being
bot-o-mated very soon.
Future Aspects?
 Chatbots are everywhere, and the sector where they will probably make
the maximum impact on in the near future is healthcare.
 With worsening doctor/patient ratio, these can play a vital role in the
initial stages of the diagnosis. Developing nations struggle to provide
the medical services, and with such chatbots coming on most commonly
used platforms, accessibility can be improved drastically.
 The sensitivity of chatbots and the reliability to analyze the symptoms
have often sparked debates on their use.
 Security of a user's medical data, which is the most personal form of
data, is an important issue to address. With hackers gaining access to
secured databases around the globe, security standards for these
chatbots is one of the major concerns.
 Rest assured, chatbots are here to revolutionize the industry. Do
not expect them to replace doctors, but the assistance they
provide is going to make a huge difference.
 No need to pay unnecessary visits to a doctor; chatbots are here
to help you!
 The most famous example of introducing AI in medical
diagnostics was the IBM Watson system. It is a
supercomputer that can answer questions formulated in the
language of the average person, and not in a programming
 In 2015, IBM even created a separate division - IBM Watson
Health, which is engaged in the introduction of AI technology
in healthcare.
But it seems that the giant Watson had some pitfalls. In my
opinion it is not ready yet for being used in medical
purposes. As other AI Based Medical Diagnostics systems
they lack of what I call the "human factor"
Chat bots that are available in
current medical field
 Ada was launched in 2016, after several years of development, and 1.5 million
people used its services in a year. In 2017, it became one of the fastest
growing medical applications. By communicating with users, Ada helps them
better understand the symptoms and the suspected cause of the disease, then
to associate them with real doctors.
The application asks appropriate personalized questions based on the
information provided and suggesting possible causes of the symptoms.

 Ada learns the medical knowledge from documented case

studies, reviews and other resources.
 Ada learns the medical knowledge from documented case studies,
reviews and other resources.
 Where other AI medical diagnostic apps leverage the knowledge of
medical. Books and medical publications, K (Kang) health leverages the
physician language.
 No it is not interviewing doctors, it is feeding its algorithm with real
medical data.
 K developed an application for sharing medical information comparing
patients' reports of their health status, according to characteristics such
as age, sex, place of residence, medical history, habits and drug
consumption. The application presents users with a series of questions
and updates them about similar medical conditions diagnosed in similar
patients who reported similar symptoms. The real database was taken
from Maccabi Health Services.
 The biggest difference between K health and the Ada app is
that K-Health is not being fed with a medical book and tried
to get it into an app. The K app is not based on laws - it tries
to understand how a real doctor treats a patient's complaint
based on real interactions.
 And if you worry about security and privacy of patient
information, let me calm you down, K Health, is based on
anonymous information from tens of millions of visits to
Maccabi family physicians since 1992, when it’s data was
first computerized, and the emphasis is on anonymous
 1. Health monitoring: Accessibility and progressing
 Virtual assistants might be in charge of reminding clients to take prescription and
screen the patient’s healthcare status. For instance, Florence, which is an online
individual healthcare assistant that tell you to take pills or contraception, spurs you to
remain with your routine and give medicinal data. Moreover, it also monitors your health
and enables you to achieve your objectives.
 2. Give data immediately when there is no opportunity to lose
 Various medical organizations made chatbots that are in charge of keeping the records
internally. These kinds of bots can promptly get essential patient data, for example,
endorsed and given drugs, hypersensitivities, investigation reports, and so on. Through
the production of chatbots to discover this data, medicinal foundations fundamentally
diminish the time spent by human services experts searching for patient’s records.
 3. Increasing patient trust
 For instance, somebody needs to see a specialist, yet first, he needs to deal with their
side effects for superior comprehension. While searching for data about their side
effects, they try to find a medicinal services supplier website nearby. They try to figure
out and investigate the data to discover their side effects, and afterward look for them.
All of a sudden a window with a chatbot shows up.
 And after a warm welcome, site guests pick between a few alternatives to choose to check the
indications. Consequently, the virtual assistant proposes the seeker by utilizing a free side
effect checker that can inform the visitors about likely reasons for their issues.
 Moreover, the bot matches somebody who converses with the pertinent doctor and offers a
meeting with the authoritative person.
 Thus, individuals communicating with the bots are getting educated about their possible
symptoms and offer to visit hospitals quickly. This sort of correspondence with chatbots makes
individuals trust the doctor’s facility without visiting it.

 4. Calendar arrangements
 Individuals can plan meetings with medicinal masters online in a flash. Some chatbots are
even intended to coordinate patients with significant specialists and track every one of their
visits and subsequent meet-ups for future purpose.
 5. Give extra help and data
 Individuals can find solutions to their additional inquiries with the assistance of chatbots. There
is no requirement for them to call the center to clear up their misunderstandings.
 In this way, centers developing chatbots for their websites cut down the number of calls which
are getting repeated which their authorities must answer.
 Herein lies a bigger problem: Human language and conversation are incredibly
nuanced. Consider the intricacies of…
 Misused phrases
 Intonation
 Double meanings
 Passive aggression
 Poor pronunciation
 Regional dialects
 Subtle humor
 Speech impairments
 Non-native speakers
 Slang
 Syntax
 The list goes on, and as the obstacles mount, designers are faced with a
dilemma: Should projects involving chatbots be avoided?
Challenges of healthcare chatbots
 Medical chatbots can advise you at any time of the day. Patients
talk about their health and describe the symptoms. The machine
quickly processes the information and makes an appointment
with a doctor.
 However, the algorithm of medical chatbots is not fully debugged.
All patients talk about the symptoms of the same disease in
different ways, and chatbots have problems handling responses.
 With the help of doctors, the vocabulary of the systems is
constantly updated with new terms, various answers are