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 According to Philip Kotler, marketing is a
system of activities designed to price,
place (distribute) and promote products
and services that satisfy the needs and
wants of target customers/markets in
order to achieve business objectives. In
contrast, sales is the process of
persuading customers to purchase the
company’s product or service.
 Marketing drives demand for the product
or service; sales fulfills the demand and
creates relationships.
 Marketing involves getting the customer to
the product or service; sales involves
getting the product or service to the
 Marketing is the activity of opening; sales
is the activity of closing.
 Socio-scientific process, involving’ group-
effort’ in the pursuit of common goals or
objectives, which are predetermined. Co-
ordination is its key, though, no doubt, it is
a system of authority, but the emphasis is
on harmony and not conflict.

 Benefits to the society

 Benefits to consumers
 Benefits to business firms; their sales-
persons and customers
Attributes of Sales Manager:
 Target fixation: The best sales leaders
are target and deadline driven. They keep
their team focused and moving forward
with a sense of urgency, regardless of the

 Command instinct: Great sales leaders
establish firm command over their team by
exercising the power their title and
position entail. However, their authority is
not autocratic. Rather, it is based upon
establishing an environment where team
members continually seek to prove
themselves, thereby driving higher overall
departmental performance. The leaders
establish this culture using a “carrot and
stick” psychological approach. …….
 Hiring ability: The ability to hire quality
talent will determine the success or failure
of the sales organization. High-performing
sales managers focus on hiring
salespeople who are skillful builders of
relationships, are persuasive, and have a
reservoir of experience they use to control
sales cycles.
 Sales intuition: Sales is a mentorship-
based profession, and a key differentiator
of great sales leaders is their ability to
dispense tactical sales advice and add
value during customer meetings. The
practical knowledge gained from the
experiences of participating in sales
cycles and managing salespeople—is
directly associated with their success.
 Control orientation: Sales managers
who closely monitor and strictly enforce a
sales process are more likely to exceed
their quotas, and the best sales leaders
seek to control the daily behavior of their
sales teams.
 Coaching adaptability: Great sales
leaders understand that there is a diversity
of selling styles by which salespeople can
achieve success. Therefore, they don’t
employ a one-size-fits-all coaching
style. Rather, they adapt their style to suit
each individual.
 Strategic leadership: Sales leaders must
devise the organization’s sales strategy to
defeat the competition. This requires
plotting the best course of action to
maximize revenue using the most cost-
effective sales model. Great sales leaders
possess the knowledge to correctly deploy
salespeople, to segment the market into
verticals, and to specialize sales teams by
product or customer types when
Steps in
in the
the Selling
Selling Process

Identifying and Screening For

1. Prospecting
Qualifying Qualified Potential Customers.

Step Learning As Much As Possible

Step 2.
2. Preapproach
Preapproach About a Prospective Customer
Before Making a Sales Call.

3. Approach
Approach Knowing How to Meet the
Buyer to Get the Relationship
Off to a Good Start.

Demonstration Telling the Product “Story” to
the Buyer, and Showing the
Product Benefits.
Steps in
in the
the Selling
Selling Process

Seeking Out, Clarifying, and

5. Handling
Objections Overcoming Customer
Objections to Buying.

Step 6.
6. Closing
Closing Asking the Customer for the

7. Follow-Up
Follow-Up Following Up After the Sale to
Ensure Customer Satisfaction
and Repeat Business.
Four Sales Channels
 Over-the-counter selling: personal selling
conducted in retail and some wholesale
locations in which customers come to the
seller’ place of business

 Field selling: sales presentations made at

prospective customers’ homes or
businesses on a face-to-face basis
 Telemarketing: promotional presentation
involving the use of the telephone on an
outbound basis by salespeople or on an inbound
basis by customers who initiate calls to obtain
information and place orders

 Inside selling: performing the functions of field

selling but avoiding travel-related expenses by
relying on phone, mail, and electronic commerce
to provide sales and product service for
customers on a continuing basis