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Biometrics

Overview

 What is Biometrics?
 History
 CHARACTERISTICS USED
 Types of Biometric Recognition
 WHY USE IT?
 HOW IT WORKS
 Comparison
What is Biometrics?

 Automated method for recognizing individuals based on


measurable biological and behavioral characteristics
History

An early cataloguing of fingerprints dates back to 1891 when Juan


Veitch started a collection of fingerprints of criminals in
Argentina. Josh Ellenberger and Nitz an Leibovich argued that
Biometrics is originated in the identificatory systems of criminal
activity developed by Alphonse Bertillon (1853–1914) and developed by
Francis Galton's theory of fingerprints and physiognomy.
CHARACTERISTICS USED

 Fingerprints
 Voiceprints
 Facial features
 Writing patterns
 Iris patterns
 Hand geometry
Finger Print Recognition

 Oldest form of Biometrics

 Pattern Matching

 Uses distinctive features of


fingers

 Problems: sometimes unusable


Iris Recognition

 Uses infrared light

 Converts Images to vectors

 Needs further development


Facial Recognition

 Location and position of


facial features

 Dependent on background
and lighting conditions
Voice Verification

 Factors: pitch, intensity,


quality and duration

 Text dependent

 Text independent

 Problems: include
background noise
Hand Geometry

 Scan both sides of hand

 Primarily used for


verification

 Not as accurate as other


methods
Dynamic Signature

 Factors: velocity,
acceleration and speed

 Mainly used for verification

 Problems: forgers could


reproduce
Commercial Applications

 Computer login

 Electronic Payment

 ATMs

 Record Protection
Government Applications

 Passport control

 Border control

 Access Control
WHY USE IT?

 Traditional methods involving passwords and PIN


numbers

 Biometrics highest level of security


HOW IT WORKS

 The hardware captures the salient human characteristic

 The software interprets the resulting data and


determines acceptability.
Comparison

Biometric Type Accuracy Ease of Use User Acceptance

Fingerprint High Medium Low

Hand Geometry Medium High Medium

Voice Medium High High

Retina High Low Low

Iris Medium Medium Medium

Signature Medium Medium High

Face Low High High