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Module 1 - Oil

Objectives of Module 1
• To learn about the purpose and/or function of oil in a
• To learn about oil additives and their purpose.
• To learn how oil is prepared for use in Caterpillar
• To learn about industry standards for oil.
• To learn about the properties of oil and their
• To learn about some of the different types of oil that
Caterpillar sells and why Caterpillar decided to sell
Basic Four Functions of Oil
• Lubricate
• Cool
• Seal
• Clean

Oil lubricates by coating the metal surfaces to reduce

the metal-to-metal wear. Oil carries away heat as it
flows. It seals small cracks and imperfections, and it
keeps the engine clean and free from corrosion.

Oil has additional functions based on the customer’s

application and special conditions. Oil additives
determine the additional functions and help the oil
perform better for those specific applications and
special conditions. The proper choice of oil and oil
additives produces a lubricant that can keep
equipment performing better for a longer period of
time. In general terms, additives improve lubrication
and protect equipment from deposits, corrosion, wear,
and temperature extremes. The types and functions
are identified later.
What Can the Proper Additive System Prevent and
Proper additive systems like the one in Cat oil can
deliver the following:
 Excellent fuel economy
 Improved start-ability
 Lowest operating cost/hour over total Cat
engine life
 Maximum Cat engine internal components
 Ability to perform best in optimized oil
change period programs (extended oil
Improper additive systems have resulted in the  Enhanced lubrication performance in
following problems: newest Cat engine technology (responding
excessive deposits to emission control requirements of today)
cylinder bore polishing
high engine oil consumption
corrosive wear
valve deposits
valve guttering
gear wear
reduced breaking capacity (off-highway
wet clutch slippage
Type Reason for Use
Dispersants, Detergents Keep sludge, carbon, and other deposit precursors
suspended in the oil.
Base Metal Compounds Neutralize acids, prevent corrosion due to acid attack
Oxidation Inhibitors (one is zinc dialkyldithiophosphates or Prevent or control oxidation of oil, formation of varnish,
ZDDP which is indicated by zinc or Zn) sludge, and corrosive compounds. Limit viscosity.
Extreme Pressure (EP) Antiwear Additives (one is zinc Form protective film on engine parts, reduce wear,
dialkyldithiophosphates or ZDDP which is indicated by prevent scuffing and seizing.
zinc or Zn, another is indicated by phosphorus or P)
Friction Modifiers (one is indicated by phosphorus or P) Reduce or modify friction, improve fuel economy.
Rust Inhibitors (one is indicated by phosphorus or P) Prevent the formation of rust on metal surfaces by
formation of surface film or neutralization of acids.
Viscosity Modifiers Reduce the rate of viscosity change with temperature.
Reduce fuel consumption. Maintain low oil consumption.
Metal Deactivators Form surface films so that metal surfaces do not catalyze
the oil.
Pour Point Dispersants Lower “freezing” point of oils, assuring free flow at low
Antifoamants Reduce foam in crankcase.
Base Stocks
The base oil or base stock can be refined mineral oil, BASESTOCK ADDITIVE
highly refined mineral oil, synthetic oil, or blends of SELECTION SELECTION
the mineral stocks with synthetics. In some
applications, processed vegetable oils are used as
the base oil in hydraulic systems. Each stock
requires a different additive chemistry. Without a
proper additive package, the base oil will degrade in
all operating conditions and compartments.

Mineral base stocks are refined from petroleum crude

oils. The crude oil source and the refining process
will determine the base stock characteristics. Highly
refined mineral oils use a deep hydrogen treating
process to remove impurities and alter the structure
of the base oil. A synthetic base oil is made from a
petroleum feed stock in a chemical plant. This
petroleum feed stock can be in many forms, such as
crude oil, natural gas, or oil shale. This process
produces a synthetic base oil with a precise chemical

Caterpillar uses fully approved and tested base oil FINISHED LUBRICANT
and additive combinations. Every base oil and
additive combination is rigorously tested to ensure it
meets the exacting Caterpillar standards. This is an
expensive but an important part of a Cat Oil
development process. Caterpillar treats the oil as a
vital component of the equipment.
Lubricant Manufacturing Cycle
Step 1: Crude SELECTION and The purest product from distillation and processing go to
SEGREGATION produce turbine oils. The remaining base stock is used to
by hydrocarbon type. The crude oil used for produce heavy duty lubricants.
diesel lubrication are primarily made up of
paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic compounds. Step 2: DISTILLATION into Fractions
with similar boiling ranges.

Step 4: BLENDING to desired

physical characteristics and to improve Step 3: PROCESSING to remove
performance. This step involves the undesirable elements.
addition of additives to the base stock.
Refinery Products
Refinery Products from Crude Oil The refining of crude oil which represents
Waxes the Distilling and Processing steps of the
Lubrication Manufacturing Cycle results in
Heavy Fuels 5%
10% of usable lubricating oil which is
10% Asphalts
called mineral base stock. The chart on
5% the left displays the remaining products.
Process Oil
10% Fuel is a large portion of the refined
product. Other products are waxes,
sulfur, asphalts, and aromatic compounds.
Lubricating Oil Kerosene
10% 30%

Jet Fuel
Synthetic Oil
A synthetic diesel engine oil like all diesel engine oils
is made from a combination of additives and base
oils. The base oil makes up about 85% of the
finished oil, and the additives make up the remaining
15%. In a synthetic diesel engine oil, the base oil
portion is a synthetic. A finished synthetic oil still
requires additives to enhance the performance of the
finished product.

Synthetic base oils are made in a chemical plant

where a petroleum feed stock (crude oil, natural gas,
oil shale) is separated into basic chemical
components. These basic components are then
assembled into a precise chemical structure. Mineral
base oils are made in a refinery where crude oil is
distilled and refined to remove impurities. The
refining process can be done by solvent extraction or
by hydro-cracking.

There are no strict regulations regarding the use of

the word “synthetic” when describing an engine oil.
Some oil companies use “true synthetics” as
produced in a chemical plant, while other oil
companies use highly refined mineral oils, and brand
their oils as synthetics.
Synthetic Oil
Properties of true synthetic oil are:
 improved flow and reduced friction at low
 increased oil film thickness at high
 increased resistance to Oxidation at high
 more solubility to keep contaminants in

Potential benefits of these properties are:

 reduced cold start cranking time
 lubricates all components at low
 resists oil thickening at high temperatures
 lower friction and improving fuel economy
 increased service intervals in some
Synthetic Oil
Issues to consider if customers ask about the use of
true synthetics and synthetic blends:
 True synthetic oils have a high cost that
must be offset by proven performance
 They need to make sure that the oil
supplier is willing assume the risks
associated with longer oil drains or fuel
economy claims.
 They need to calculate the differences
between their present maintenance
program and their new program with a
synthetic oil.

Caterpillar offers Full Synthetic Diesel Engine Oil,

FDAO Synthetic, and Synthetic Blend TDTO MS.
API Service Classification
This familiar symbol stands for a level of oil quality.
The API Service Symbol indicates an oil’s
performance level, viscosity grade, and fuel economy
rating. API stands for American Petroleum Institute.
An CH-4 oil with this symbol meets the requirements
of the new high performance diesel engines and the
meets the requirements of the low emissions diesel

SAE While any oil supplier may use the API service
15W-40 classifications to indicate the performance level of
any one of their commercial oils, only licensed
companies may use the API donut symbol on their
labels. Licensees who use this donut have certified
that each licensed oil meets all prescribed technical
performance standards.

SAE Viscosity
Properties of Oil
The main properties of oil are the following: The minimum and maximum temperatures for some
of the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers)
 Flow Characteristics – Viscosity viscosity number equivalents are below. Oils with a
SAE grade meet the SAE specifications. The “W” in
 Total Acid Number - TAN a viscosity number stands for winter. For example,
 Total Base Number - TBN SAE 15W40 means that the oil meets SAE
specifications for both winter 15W and summer 40
Viscosity is defined as a measure of a fluid’s grade oils.
resistance to flow. The standard measure of this
property for crankcase oils is termed “kinematic Engine Oil Viscosity at Ambient Temperature
viscosity.” Kinematic viscosity is based on the ability
of an oil to flow under the influence of gravity through Viscosity Grade Minimum Maximum
a capillary tube. The unit of measurement for
kinematic viscosity is cSt or the centistoke. SAE 0W20 -40oC (-40oF) 10oC (50oF)
SAE 0W30 -40oC (-40oF) 30oC (86oF)
If the viscosity of an oil experiences a change, it will SAE 0W40 -40oC (-40oF) 40oC (104oF)
begin to loose the ability to lubricate. Increases in
viscosity can be caused by an accumulation of soot SAE 5W30 -30oC (-22oF) 30oC (86oF)
or by oxidation. (decreases caused by dilution by fuel
SAE 5W40 -30oC (-22oF) 40oC (104oF)
or another oil)
SAE 10W30 -20oC (-4oF) 40oC (104oF)
SAE 15W40 -15oC (5oF) 50oC (122oF)
cSt @
100oC SAE Gear
42 Viscosity
Since viscosity is directly related to how well an oil
will lubricate by forming a film to separate surfaces
36 that would contact one another, an oil must be able to
34 maintain its viscosity no matter what the outside
140 temperature is. Maintaining the correct viscosity is

critical. The more viscous an oil is, the thicker the


30 film on the metal parts will be. This thicker film will be

28 more resistant to removal which is one of the goals of

oil. However, if the oil is too viscous, it may not flow
26 adequately enough to lubricate at low outside
24 temperatures.
50 20
18 90

40 16

30, 25W 12 85W

15W, 20, 20W 80W

10W 6
0W, 5W
SAE Viscosity Grades for Engine Oils –
SAE J300 Dec 99
Low Temperature Viscosities High-Temperature Viscosities
Low Shear Rate
SAE Pumpingc (cP) max Kinematicd (cSt) at High Sheare Rate
Viscosity Crankingb (cP) with no yield stress 100°C (cP) at 150°C
Grade max at temp °C at temp °C min max min
0W 6200 at -35 60,000 at -40 3.8 — —
5W 6600 at -30 60,000 at -35 3.8 — —
10W 7000 at -25 60,000 at -30 4.1 — —
15W 7000 at -20 60,000 at -25 5.6 - —
20W 9500 at -15 60,000 at -20 5.6 — —
25W 13,000 at -10 60,000 at -15 9.3 — —
20 — — 5.6 <9.3 2.6
30 — — 9.3 <12.5 2.9
2.9 (0W-40, 5W-
40 — — 12.5 <16.3 40, 10W-40
3.7 (15W-40,
40 — — 12.5 <16.3 20W-40, 25W-40,
40 grades)
50 — — 16.3 <21.9 3.7
60 — — 21.9 <26.1 3.7
a All values are critical specifications as defined by ASTM D 3244 (see text, Section 3).
b ASTM D 5293
c ASTM D 4684 (see also Appendix B and text Section 4.1): The presence of any yield stress detectable by this method

constitutes a failure regardless of viscosity.

d ASTM D 445
e ASTM D 4683, ASTM D 4741, CEC-L-36-A-90
Automotive Gear Lubricant
Viscosity Classifications – SAE
J306 3
Max Temperature Kinematic Viscosity at 100°C (cSt)
SAE Viscosity Grade for Viscosity of 4
150,000 cP (°C)
1,2 min max
70W -55 4.1 —
75W -40 4.1 —
80W -26 7.0 —
85W -12 11.0 —
80 — 7.0 <11.0
85 — 11.0 <13.5
90 — 13.5 <24.0
140 — 24.0 <41.0
250 — 41.0 —

1Using ASTM D 2983.

2Additionallow-temperature viscosity requirements may be appropriate for fluids intended for use in light-duty synchronized
manual transmissions.
3Using ASTM D 445.
4Limit must also be met after testing in CEC L-45-T-93, Method C (20 hours).
5The precision of ASTM D 2983 has not been established for determinations made at temperatures below -40°C. This fact

should be taken into consideration in any producer-consumer relationship.

The TAN or Total Acid Number of an oil refers to the
amount of acids that are formed as the oil and its
additives oxidize. The TAN is found by using a
colorimetric titration. It tells us how much acid is in
the oil.

Sulfuric acid can form when sulfur, which is present in

fuel, reacts with the moisture in the crankcase. Over
time, as the oil remains in the engine, the alkaline
additives neutralize the acids and are depleted.
TBN or Total Base Number is found by using a Additive depletion is just one more reason why the oil
colorimetric titration to determine the amount of is changed.
reserve alkalinity remaining in the oil. In other
words, the TBN Test tells us how much base or
alkaline additive is remaining in the oil to
counteract or neutralize the acids that may form
within the engine.
Diesel Engine Oil Performance
Performance Depletion TBN








0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Oil Hours
Diesel Engine Oil Performance
Elements & Performance Mg Zn
13.25 3500

13 3000

12.75 2500

12.5 2000


12.25 1500

12 1000

11.75 500

11.5 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Oil Hours
Using the Proper Oil in Each

Compartment Industry Specification Cat Branded Products

Diesel Engine API CG-4, CH-4, CI-4 DEO, DEO Full Synthetic
Gas Engine Field Test NGEO
Transmission TO-4, TO-4M TDTO, TDTO MS
Hydraulic System API CF to CI-4, & 900 HYDO, DEO, TDTO,
PPM zinc minimum MTO
Final Drive TO-4 or FD-1 TDTO or FDAO
Gears API GL-5 GO
Some Backhoe Loaders’ M2C134-D MTO
Oil Performance Evaluation – Cat
Commercial Commercial Cat DEO
Performance Requirements Test CG-4 CH-4 CH-4
Cat 3406E Endurance Test Cat Special
Cat C-12 Endurance Test Cat Special
Cat 3500 Series Test Cat Special
Piston Deposits & Oil Control - Steel Piston 1P
Piston Ring Wear & Cylinder Liner Wear T-9
Aeration Control EOAT
Valve Train Wear, Sludge, Oil Filter Plugging M-11HST
Viscosity Increase from Soot T-8E
Piston Deposits & Oil Control - Aluminum Piston 1N - 1K
Cam Roller Follower Pin Wear RFWT
Oxidation Seq. 3E
Copper, Lead, & Tin, Corrosion CBT
Foaming Control ASTM Foam
Bearing Corrosion L-38
Viscosity Shear Loss Bosch Inj.
Oil Performance – Different API
Performance Parameters CF CF-4 CG-4 CH-4
PC engine Al Piston Depoists X
DI engine Al Piston Dep. & Oil Cons. XX X X
DI engine Steel Piston Dep. & Oil Cons. X
Viscosity Increase from Soot X X X
Top Ring Wear X X
Liner Wear X
Valve Train Wear, Sludge, Filter Plg X
Cam Roller Follower Pin Wear X X
Oxidation (gasoline engine) X X
Copper, Lead, & Tin, Corrosion X X
Foaming resistance X X
Aeration X
Bearing Corr. Cu/L X X X X
Viscosity Shear Loss X
Viscosity Shear Loss (high shear) X
SAE J300 viscosity at 100 C 15W-40
Premium Oil
Can you determine the performance level of these oils based on
chemical and physical properties?

Oil A Oil B
Calcium PPM 3000 2300
Magnesium PPM 0 430
Zinc PPM 1270 1300
Boron PPM 0 160
Viscosity cSt @100C 14.3 15.5
Sulfated Ash D 874 1.2 1.2
Premium Oil
Oil A Oil B
Oil Brand Cat TDTO Cat DEO
Viscosity Grade 40 15W-40
Min Starting Temp deg F 41 5
API Classification ~CF CH-4
API tests 2 13
Cat in-house engine tests 0 3
Calcium PPM 3000 2300
Magnesium PPM 0 430
Zinc PPM 1270 1300
Boron PPM 0 160
TBN D 2896 8 11
Viscosity cSt @100C 14.3 15.5
Sulfated Ash D 874 1.2 1.2
Using the Proper Oil in Each

The Caterpillar Hydraulic Oil also known as HYDO

provide two main benefits to Caterpillar machines.
The first main benefit is illustrated in the diagram on
the left. You can see that the Cat® HYDOTM has
superior antiwear properties as compared to industrial
hydraulic oil. This means that it provides excellent
antiwear protection.
Using the Proper Oil in Each
The second main benefit is its excellent water
dispersion. As you can see from the diagram on the
left, the Cat® HYDOTM allows small amounts of
water to be dispersed and contained within the oil.

Other benefits of Cat® HYDOTM are the following:

 It contains defoamers and air release
agents, which reduce the formation of air
 It contains anti-oxidants, which reduce
sludge and acids.
 It contains detergents and dispersants,
which break up contaminants and
disperses them.
 It contains rust and corrosion inhibitors.
 It has an oil change interval of 4000 hours,
if and only if, S•O•S Services Analysis is
performed every 500 hours and if the filter
is changed every 500 hours. The S•O•S
Services Analysis must be performed to
ensure contamination control limits have
not been exceeded.
Using the Proper Oil in Each
The proper oil must be used in each compartment in
order to achieve maximum component life. The
picture to the left demonstrates wet clutch slippage
due to the use of engine or gear oil in transmissions
and drive trains. Oil used in transmissions must meet
the TO-4 specification.

Caterpillar’s TDTO or Transmission/Drive Train Oil is

specially formulated to meet the requirements of all
Cat transmissions and drive trains. It also meets the
requirements established by the TO-4 specification.
Cat TDTO is tested in full scale final drive and
transmission tests. It also must undergo field trails
and brake tests in Cat equipment. Caterpillar also
supplies the TDTO TMS. Cat is the only supplier with
a qualified multi-season TO-4M oil. TDTO TMS is a
multi-season transmission fluid and wet brake fluid
developed to reduce seasonal oil changes.
Using the Proper Oil in Each
Specifically, TDTO was designed and tested to do the
 Eliminate transmission slippage
 Increase clutch disc life
 Control brake chatter (Brake chatter
occurs when the brakes are applied and
the machine jerks instead of stopping
 Provides greater machine rim pull (Rim
pull refers to the machines ability to
perform without slippage. Slippage is
caused by using the wrong oil in a
compartment. The right oil with the proper
additives controls slippage.)
 Improves gear wear and bearing fatigue
789B Transmission Gear and Pin at 13,838 Hours
Using the Proper Oil in Each
Beyond TDTO, an exclusive Cat oil, Cat Final Drive
and Axle Oil (FDAO) has an enormous impact on life
of final drives and wheel assemblies of Cat Off-
Highway Trucks and final drives of Track-Type Bearing Life (Fatigue) 2 Times TDTO
Tractors. FDAO has the following advantages over
TO-4 oils: FZG Gear (Pitting) >4 Times TDTO
 Significantly improved gear life Seal Compatibility Exceeded TDTO
 Improved bearing life
 Longer standard oil drains (4000 hours in FZG Wear Equal to TDTO
off-highway trucks versus 2000 hours for FZG Scuffing Equal to TDTO
 Potential to further extend oil drains D8N 4-sq. (Thin-Film Exceeded
(due to reduced oil oxidation rate) Wear)
 Improved final drive efficiency Lubricant Parameter Higher @ High
Pour Point -15oC vs. –12oC
FDAO was developed to meet the
specific needs of highly loaded final 17 Other Tests No Negatives
drives like those in large off-highway
trucks and large track-type tractors.
It cannot be used in compartments
that contain friction materials or
brake materials.
Using the Proper Oil in Each
Developed, tested, and approved by Caterpillar, Cat Applications
Gear Oil ensures optimum life and performance in •Cat Wheel Tractor-Scraper, Articulated Truck,
Cat manual transmissions, axles, and final drives that Wheel-type Excavator, and some Backhoe Loader
require an extreme pressure additive over a wide differentials and final drives.
range of temperatures. When the use of gear oil is •Pavement Profiler direct drive transmissions,
specified, Cat Gear Oil maximizes component life. differentials, and final drives.
•Vibratory Compactor drum bearings.

Warning: Cat Gear Oil does not meet the Caterpillar

TO-4 specification and should not be used in
compartments that specify TO-4 oil.
Using the Proper Oil in Each
Customer Benefits
• Uninterrupted performance under broad
temperature variations.
• Excellent protection against wearing and scoring
caused by high speed and heavy gear loads.
• Superior protection against rusting, staining, and
• Good thermal stability and foam resistance.
• Compatibility with seals and gaskets.
• Multipurpose capability to simplify inventory and
minimize misapplication.
Oil Sampling & Oil Change

Recommended Oil Recommended Sampling

Compartment Oil Type
Change Interval Sampling Interval Valve
Engine 250 Hours 250 Hours Yes DEO
Transmission 1000 Hours 500 Hours Yes TDTO
Hydraulics 2000 Hours 500 Hours Yes HYDO
Differential & TDTO
Final Drive 2000 Hours 500 Hours No FDAO
Cat Oil is a Differentiator
– Cat Oil is blended to Caterpillar
– The specifications are developed by Cat
engineers to respond to Caterpillar
engines’ needs.
– Cat DEO Oil exceeds the latest API heavy
duty diesel engine oil classification
requirements and passes a battery of in-
house engine tests. In other words, Cat oil
is specially formulated to meet industry
specifications and internal Cat
– Cat Fluids are available world-wide
through the Cat Dealer system.
Oil in Your Engine
History of Cat Oil
Caterpillar 1948 1972
Superior Cat Superior API & SAE
Lubricant Lubricant classification
specification Series 2 spec. adopted

1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

1947 Cat Oil
American Program is
Petroleum Lubricant introduced
Institute Series 3
(API) spec