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Oct 29 2017 Noah Martin

Stem Bio 4th period

Insert Family Insert scan of

Photo Here

Paper Pet Project

Honors Biology
Table 1: Gender Data

Generatio Males Females

P 94 94
F1 22 25

Total Population Size = 235

Table 2: Population Gene Pool Data

Males Females
Trait Pgen F1 Pgen F1
Carrier for 0 0 18 15
Blind 12 14 0 2
Triangle nose (nn) 53 8 48 7
• 1 individual with non-disjunction Chromosome 2 = Purple
Other “Novel” eyes (Ee e ) y B

• 1 individual with non-disjunction of ALL Chromosomes

Mutation(s) • Turner syndrome (XO)
• No eyes, no hair, no nose, no ears
Questions & Discussion
Use your experience from the project and the previous data
tables to answer and discuss the questions listed on the next
several slides.
Punnet Squares Page 1

Based on your Punnet squares,

what was the probability of you
and your partner having a baby
with a tail with the co-dominant

Based on your Punnet square,

what are the genotypic ratios
for your F1 generation hair color?
h^b h^y: 100%
Punnet Squares Page 2

What are the phenotypic

ratios for your F1 generation for
the dihybrid cross for eyes?
Circular Blue eyes: 50%
Circular Purple eyes: 50%

What are the genotypic ratios

for your F1 generation for the
dihybrid cross for eyes?
Ese^bs: 50%
e^bse^bs: 50%
Law of Probability
▶ Define the law of probability Insert an image that
demonstrates probability.
It expresses the total
probability of an outcome which
can be figured out based on
Use a trait from our pet
population to demonstrate how
probability works.
The trait for gender had a 50%
probability of being male, and a
50% probability of being female,
our child turned out to be female
based on the different sex
chromosomes present.
Pet Karyotyping

▶ What is a karyotype? Insert a relevant image here.o

The number and visual
appearance of the
chromosomes in the cell nuclei
of an organism or species.
▶ Explain how/when you
demonstrated/created a
karyotype for your pet.
Our pet child had an x
chromosome and a y
chromosome, which means
that it was a female. This was
dependent on the karyotype
Crossing Over
▶ Define crossing over
The process where homologous
chromosomes pair up with each
other and exchange different
segments of their genetic
material to form chromosomes.
▶ Explain what you did during
this project that demonstrated
crossing over.
▶ This happened when we cut
off pieces of the chromosomes
and taped them to the
opposite chromosome of the
same color.
▶ Define meiosis
A type of cell division that
results in four daughter cells
each with half the number
of chromosomes of the
parent cells
▶ Explain when/how you
demonstrated meiosis in
this project.
This was demonstrated
when we had to
Independent Assortment

▶ Independent assortment is
when different genes
independently separate
from one another when
reproductive cells
▶ This is demonstrated in the
project by the child
developing combinations
of genes from the parents.
Refer to Tables 1 & 2 for the following

▶ Using the WHOLE pet ▶ .23

population, what is the
frequency of the allele
which causes blindness? ▶ Autosomal Recessive
▶ What type of inheritance
pattern is exhibited by the
allele which causes
blindness in your pets?
Refer to Tables 1 and 2 for the following
▶ Using the WHOLE pet population,
calculate the following for nose NN: .09
▶ Allelic frequencies Nn: .42
▶ Genotypic frequencies
▶ Phenotypic frequencies nn: .49


P^2: .09

Q^2: .49

2pq: .42


Triangle nose: .49

Circle nose: .51

Paper Pet Cladogram
Use the amino acid information on the next page to generate a paper
pet cladogram.
The BAG Gene Amino Acid Sequence

• Keep in mind, your pet is the “most” evolved

so it would be at the TOP of the cladogram!
• Refer to your molecular genetics
cladogram worksheet if you need an example!
Refer to Tables 1 and 2 for the following

▶ Using the WHOLE pet ▶ .009

population, calculate the
frequency at which
spontaneous “novel” mutations
▶ As you have learned,
mutations can drive
microevolution, therefore the ▶ A large breeding population.
paper pets will continue to
evolve. ▶ Random mating.
▶ What conditions would be ▶ No change in allelic frequency
required for the population to due to mutation.
be in “equilibrium”?
▶ No immigration or emigration.
▶ No natural selection.
Hardy-Weinberg Extended

The next section

of the project
refers to your
study of the Rock
Pocket Mouse
you have been
conducting in
your math class.
Use the spreadsheet to determine how the selection coefficient (s) influences
the phenotype of future generations. Substitute increasingly large numbers for s.
Explain how the selection coefficient and
natural selection are related.

▶ The selection coefficient ▶ Insert an image that

determines which traits demonstrates natural
are passed on, leading to selection from the internet.
the success or failure of a
In areas with primarily dark-colored substrate, dark-colored mice have a selective advantage over light-
colored mice. Therefore, mice with one or more copies of the dominant Mc1r D allele have a selective
advantage over mice with two copies of the Mc1r d allele. In the film, Dr. Sean Carroll says that with a 1%
selection advantage, it takes 1,000 years for 95% of the mice to have the dominant phenotype. With a 10%
selection advantage, it would take just 100 years. Use the spreadsheet to verify these facts.

▶ Find out how many generations following the first appearance of a dark-
colored mutation it would take for 95% of the mice to express the
dominant dark-colored phenotype, given a 1% advantage (s = 0.01).
Rock pocket mice have approximately one litter of pups a year, so the
number of generations will be equal to the number of years. You will not
be able to use the graph on the Main Page tab since it only goes up to
100 generations. So, you will need to look at column D of the worksheet
called Main Worksheet. Scroll down until the value is greater than 0.95.
▶ It would take about ______937_______ generations.

▶ Repeat the process for a 10% advantage (s = 0.1).

▶ It would take about _______107______ generations.

▶ What would the selection coefficient need to be for 95% of the mice to
have the dominant phenotype in just 50 years? Record your answer
▶ The coefficient would need to be about ________________.23_____________________.
Genetics Research
Based on YOUR LAST NAME, you will research a specific genetic disorder.
See the next slide for your specific disorder.
The information required for your research is outlined in the slides that follow.
You will need to cite your sources so keep track of them.
No plagiarism!
Any material that is copy and pasted word for word will not earn credit!

(Based on the first letter of your LAST name, you will research one of the
following genetic disorders)

• A-E Patau Syndrome

• F-L Edward’s Syndrome
Cri du chat Syndrome

Type of Genetic Disorder Inheritance

Deletion of a piece of the p ▶ The syndrome is usually not

arm from Chromosome 5. inherited, and only 10% of
Usually referred to as 5p-. cases occur when ad
child inherits the disease
from an unaffected
Cri du chat Syndrome

▶ The disorder occurs at
chromosome 5.
Cri du chat Syndrome

Symptoms of Disorder Effects of Disorder

▶ Low birth weight ▶ Small head size

▶ Hypertonia ▶ Distinctive facial features
(Ex. Hypertelorism, small
▶ High pitched, cat like cry jaw, rounded face, low
▶ Mental retardation ears)

▶ Delayed development ▶ Possibility of heart defects

▶ Feeding difficulties
Cri du chat Syndrome

Diagnosis of Disorder Prognosis of Disorder

▶ Explain how doctors ▶ Most have normal life

determine a person has expectancies though a
the disorder very small percentage of
them are born with life
▶ List specific tests used in threatening birth defects
Cri du chat Syndrome

Insert an image related to the disorder (ex: karyotype, patient

(be appropriate), infographic, etc.
Citations for Genetics Research

▶ Cri-du-chat syndrome - Genetics Home Reference. (n.d.). Retrieved from du- chat-syndrome#inheritance
▶ Learning About Cri du Chat. (n.d.). Retrieved from chat/
▶ [Digital image]. (2013, November 03). Retrieved from chat-
▶ Rosales, A. (n.d.). [Digital image]. Retrieved from
▶ [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from