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THEOREY OF KINGSHIP

IN ANCIENT INDIA
IN VEDIC TIMES
 SOME SPECULATION ABOUT THE THEORY
OF KINGSHIP WAS FOUND IN THE
AITAREYA BRAHAMAN WHICH REFERS TO
THE WAR BETWEEN THE DEVAS AND THE
DANAVAS.
 IN THIS WAR THE DEVAS APPOINTED
INDRA AS THEIR KING.IT WAS THE
NECESSITY OF THE WAR THAT
ORIGINATED THE IDEA OF KINGSHIP.
BUDDHIST LITERATURE
 THE SAME KIND OF THEOREY WAS FOUND IN
THE BUDDHIST CANONS.
 THE ANNA SUTTA REFERS TO THE SOCIETY
WHERE THE STATE OF MATSYANYAYA(THE LOGIC
OF THE FISH) PREVAILED.IT IS WHERE THE
STRONG DEVOURED THE WEAK AND THE STATE
OF ANARCHY PREVAILED IN THE ABSENCE OF
AUTHORITY.
 THEREFORE THE PEOPLE GATHERED AND
ELECTED A PERSON AS THE KING.
 THE SPECULATIONN IMPLIES MONARCHY TO BE
BOTH ELECTIVE AND CONTRACTUAL.
ARTHASHASTRA…..
 IN ARTHASHASTRA KAUTILYA JUSTIFIES THE KING
AUTHORITY BY MEANS OF THE DIVINE RIGHTS.
 AT THE SAME TIME HE BRINGS ABOUT THE GREAT
CLEARNESS THE PRINCIPLE THAT THE KING IS AN
OFFICIAL RECEIVING THE REVENUE FOR THE SERVICES OF
PROTECTION.
 THIS IDEA IS FURTHER CARRIED TO THE POINT THAT THE
KING IS SPIRITUALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FAITHFULL
DISCHARGE OF HIS FUNCTIONS.THEREFORE THE
NECESSARY CONDITION OF THIS RELATION IS THE
PAYMENT OF TAX.
 HERE ALSO THE CONTRACTUAL THEOREY IS PURPORTED
TO BUTTRESS ROYAL POWER.

EPIC AGE
 THE ELECTIVE THEOREY OF THE VEDIC AGE DID NOT FIND
SPACE IN THIS AGE.
 THE SHANTI PARVA SECTION OF MAHABHARATE SPEAKS
OF THE BRAHMA THE CREATORUPON WHOM THE GODS
APPROACHED HIMAND COMPLIANED OF THE DECLINE OF
VIRTUE ON THE EARTH.
 THEN THE VISHNU CREATED AN ASEXUAL SONVIRAJAS.
 IN THIS LINE BORH VENA ,ATYRANNICAL RULER.THE
SAGES KILLED HIM AND FROM HIS RIGHT THIGH CREATED
PRITH WHO RULED RIGHTEOUSLY AS REQUIRED BY THE
SAGES.
 .
 HENCE THE KING WAS THE HEIR OF VISHNU(DIVINE
RELATIONSHIP) AND THERE WAS A CONTRACT BETWEEN
THE KING AND THE BRAHAMANS.THE KING PROMISES TO
PROTECT AND RESPEDT THEM.
EPIC AGE
 ANOTHER INCIDENCE IN THE SHANTI PRAVA SAYS THAT
THEIR WAS ANARCHY AND CONFUSION IN THE WHOLE
WORLD.
 THE PEOPLE APPEALED TO GOD AND THE LATTER SEND
MANU TO SET THINGS WHICH DID VERY EFFICIENTLY.
 .EVEN IN THIS SPECULATION THE KINGSHIP IS NOT THE
RESULT OF THE BILATERAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE
PEOPLE AND ONE OF THEIR OWN.
 IT IS THE CREATION OF THE DIVINE WILL,AND IN THE
AGREEMENT THEPEOPLE MAKE EXTRAVAGANT PROMISES
TO THE KING.
 YET THE CONTRACTUAL THEOREY OCCURING IN THIS
SPECULATION SHOULD BE REGARDED AS THE MOST
ADEQUATE THEOREY ON THE ORIGIN OF THE STATE.
THEOREY OF KINGSHIP IN
MEDIEVAL INDIA.
 BALBAN ADOPTED THE POLICY OF DIVINE RIGHTS OF KINGSHIP MEANS KINGSHIP CONFERRED
UPON THE GOD AND SO NO ONE CAN CLAIM SUPERIORITY OF SULTAN AS HIS WORD WAS THE
LAW WHICH MADE HIM NON-ACCOUNTABLE TO ANYONE.
 THIS THEOREY MADE SULTAN A HOLY BEING i.e IT IS THE DUTY OF EVERYONE (ULEMA AND
SUBJECTS ALIKE) TO OBEY HIS COMMAND AS HE HAD THE GRACE OF GOD.
 HAVING SUPRESSED THE REVOLTS IN BENGAL i.e OF TUGHRIL KHAN HE APPOINTED HIS SON
BUGHRA KHAN TO BE THE GOVERNOR OF THE PROVINCE WITH THE WARNING THAT IF HE
REVOLTED, HE COULD BE DEALT WITH THE SAME FATE AS TUGHRIL DID,SO HE BELIEVES IN THE
THEOREY OF KINGSHIP KNOWS NO KINSHIP.
 BALBAN TRACED HIS DESCENT FROM THE MYTHICAL TURKISH HERO AFRASYAB AND
DISCRIMINATE BETWEENN THE HIGH BORN AND THE LOW BORN.THE INDIAN BORN MUSLIMS
WERE LOOKED DOWN IN THE GOVERNMENT SERVICES AS MORE EMPHASIS WERE GIVEN ON THE
TURKISH NOBILITY.
 HE APPOINTED A SPECIAL OFFICER WHICH WOULD BE LOOKING INTO THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND
OF A PERSON BEFORE APPOINTING HIM TO THE TO THE HIGHER POSTS OF NOBILITY,FAILING IN
WHICH HE DO SO,WOULD BE CHANGED.
 BALBAN INSCRIBED ON HIS CURRENCY ZIL-I-ILLAHI ,viz THE SHADOW OF GOD ON EARTH.
 HE ALSO STARTED SIZDA AND PABOS A METHOD OF HONOURING HIM BEFORE COMING TO THE
COURT,HENCE IMPOSES A STRICT CODE OF CONDUCT TO HIS NOBILITY.
 AT THE SAME TIME HE WANTED HIS PEOPLE TO FEAR HIM,FOR THIS HE APPOINTED THE
UGHLIEST POSSIBLE GUARDS OF 6 FEET IN HEIGHT WITH NAKED SWORDS.THUS BALBAN LOVE
TO BE CRUEL TO HIS SUBJECTS AND THOUGHT THAT ONLY SUCH A POLICY CAN PREVENT ANY
REBELLION AGAINST HIM.
 ALLAUDDIN KHILJI BASED HIS PHILOSOPHY ON THE RULE OF MIGHT IS
RIGHT.HE WAS THROUGH AUTOCRAT AND IT WAS HIS POLICY TO RULE
WITH UNCHECKED DESPOTISM.
 IN HIS THEORY OF KINGSHIP THERE WAS NO ROOM FOR THE MANDATE
OF RELIGION OR FOR THE INTERFERENCE OF THE ULEMA.
 HE FORMULATED HIS POLICY IN THESES WORDS----I DO NOT KNOW
WHETHER THIS IS LAWFUL OR UNLAWFUL,WHATEVER I THINK IT IS
GOOD FOR THE STATE OR SUITABLE FOR THE EMERGENCY AND AS FOR
WHAT MAY HAPPEN TO ME ON THE APPROACHING DAY OF JUDGEMENT
THAT I KNOW NOT.
 BY PROPOUNDING THIS DOCTRINE OF SOVEREIGNITY ALLAUNDIN
DIVORCED RELIGION FROM POLITCS AND THEREBY STRUCK A GREAT
BLOW AT THE TRADITIONAL INFLUENCE OF THE ULEMA OVER STATE
AFFAIRS .
 ALL HIS REFORMS WERE SUPPORTIVE OF THE STATE AND NOT THE
MASSES.HE MADE IT CLEAR THAT IN CARRYING ON THE GOVERNMENT
,HE WOULD BE GUIDED BY HIS OWN DISCRETION RATHER THAN THE
PRECEPTS OF THE KURAN.
 HERE HE BROKE NEW GROUND ,COMPLETELY IGNORING THE
THEOCRATIC CHARACTER OF THE STATE.
 AS FAR AS MUGHALS ARE CONCERNED
,THEY BELIEVE IN THE DIVINE RIGHTS OF
KINGHSHIP .
 ABUL FAZL MENTIONED THE CONCEPT OF
FARR-I-IZZDI AND SAID THAT THE KING
IS DIVINE IN HIS OWN RIGHT.
 NO PERSON COULD DISOBEY YHE KING
AND WHOSOEVER DID IT WOULD BE
LIABLE TO PUNISHMENT.
 THE LATER MUGHALS ALSO FOLLOW THE
SAME TRADITION AS SET UP BY THEIR
FOREFATHERS.