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# 1

COMPARATOR AND
SCHEMITT TRIGGER
4/13/2019 ENGR 114 SENSING AND SIGNALS
Outline
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 Comparator
 Schmitt Trigger
 Differentiator
 Integrator
 Instrumentation Amplifier
 Active filter Design

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The comparator
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##  The function of this device is to compare the two

inputs and to indicate which one is higher.
 The comparator is useful beyond simple comparison.
 It will be used extensively in A/D and D/A
conversion of signals and in many other aspects of
sensing and actuation

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Recall: Non-linear application in op-amp
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##  Non-linear application is where the op-amp operate in non-

linear region
 By comparing these two input voltages: positive input voltages,
V+ and negative input voltage, V- where:
VO = VCC if V+ > V-
VO = -VCC if V+ < V-
 Input current, Ii = 0

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Non-linear application:
Comparator
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COMPARATOR
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COMPARATOR
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##  When the noninverting voltage is larger than the

inverting voltage the comparator produces a high
output voltage (+Vsat).
 When the non-inverting input is less than the
inverting input the output is low (-Vsat).

vO = -Vsat if vi > VR
= + Vsat if v i < VR

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COMPARATOR
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Comparator
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Non-linear application
Schmitt Trigger
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Positive Feedback

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Example
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##  Design a comparator which compares input to the 1

volt reference voltage.

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Intruder Alarm Circuit
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Schmitt Trigger
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##  For instance, assume the inverting input voltage to be slightly

positive.
 This will produce a negative output voltage.
 The voltage divider feedback a negative voltage to the
non-inverting input, which results in a larger negative
voltage.
 This feedback more negative voltage until the circuit is
driven into negative saturation.
 If the input voltage were, slightly negative instead of
positive, the circuit would be driven into the positive
saturation. This is the reason the circuit is also referred to as
regenerative comparator.

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OPERATION
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##  When the circuit is positively saturated, a positive

voltage is feedback to the non-inverting input.
 This positive input holds the output in the Positive
saturation high state.
 Similarly, when the output voltage is negatively
saturated, a negative voltage is feedback to the non-
inverting input, holding the output in the low state.
 In either case, the positive feedback reinforces the
existing output state

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Reference voltage
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is given by

##  If Vin is less than Vref output will remain +Vsat.

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Reference voltage
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##  When input vin exceeds Vref = +Vsat the output

switches from +Vsat to –Vsat. Then the reference
voltage is given by

##  The output will remain –Vsat as long as vin > Vref.

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Schmitt Trigger Transfer characteristics
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Schmitt trigger
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##  In a Schmitt trigger, the voltages at which the

output switches from +vsat to –vsat or vice versa are
called upper trigger point (UTP) and lower trigger
point (LTP).
 The difference between the two trip points is called
hysteresis.

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hysteresis
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Schmitt Trigger Example
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##  R2 VS(V) (b) Input Voltage of Schmitt Trigger

V  VO
R2  R1 7.5
assume R1  R2 and VCC  VEE  15V
with initial state Vo  15V and
t
VS  V  10 sin t V

1

-7.5
V  (15)  7.5V
2
Vo(V)
(a) Transfer Characteristic of Schmitt Trigger
Vo(V) 15
15
t
VS(V)
-10 -7.5 7.5 10
-15
-15 (c) Output Voltage of Schmitt Trigger
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DIFFERENTIATOR
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Differentiator
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Differentiator
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##  Thus the output vo is equal to the RC times the

negative instantaneous rate of change of the input
voltage vin with time

## ENGR 114 SENSING AND SIGNAL

Integrator
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Integrator
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Instrumentation amplifier
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##  The instrumentation amplifier is a modified op-amp

 Its gain is finite and both inputs are available.
 These amplifiers are available as single device
 To understand how they operate, one should view
them as being made of three op-amps
 Instrumentation amplifier has very high input
impedance and very high CMRR compared to
operational amplifier.
 These property makes this ideal choice for the
industry applications.

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Instrumentation amplifier
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Instrumentation amplifier
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## In a commercial instrumentation amplifier all

resistances are internal and produce a gain usually
around 100.
Ra is external and can be set by the user to obtain
the gain required.
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Example
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##  Design an instrumentation amplifier of gain 100.

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Electrocardiogram
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Low Pass Filter
< 100Hz
< 0.2 V
Gain = 40

Gain = 32

## High Pass Filter

Maximize CMRR >0.05Hz
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ACTIVE FILTERS
4/13/2019 Sensing and signals
Filters:
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##  The most commonly used filters are these:

 Low pass filters
 High pass filter

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Filters
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Passive Filters
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##  Made up of passive components - resistors, capacitors and

inductors
 No amplifying elements (- transistors, op-amps, etc)
 No signal gain
 1st order - design is simple (just use standard equations to
find resonant frequency of the circuit)
 2nd order - complex equations
 Require no power supplies
 Can be used at very high frequencies
 Can handle larger current or voltage levels than active
devices
 Buffer amplifiers might be required

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Active Filter
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 no inductors
 made up of op-amps, resistors and capacitors
 provides virtually any arbitrary gain
 generally easier to design
driving source
 low output impedance prevents the filter from being
 at high frequencies is limited by the gain-bandwidth of the
op-amps
 easy to adjust over a wide frequency range without
altering the desired response
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Categories of Filters
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## Low Pass Filters:

High Pass Filters:
pass all frequencies from dc up to the
pass all frequencies that are above
upper cutoff frequency.
its lower cutoff frequency

Av(dB) Av(dB)

-3dB { -3dB {

f f
f2 f1

## Low-pass response High-pass response

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Categories of Filters
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## Band Pass Filters: Band Stop (Notch) Filters:

pass only the frequencies that fall eliminate all signals within the stop
between its values of the lower and band while passing all frequencies
upper cutoff frequencies. outside this band.

Av(dB)
Av(dB)

-3dB { -3dB {

f f
f1 f2 f1 f2

## Band Pass Response Band Stop Response

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Single pole Low Pass Filter
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+V
R1
+
vin
C1 vout
- Rf1
-V

Rf2

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Example
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##  A low pass filter can be designed using the

following steps:
 Choose a value of high cutoff frequency fH.
 Select a value of C less than or equal to 1 µF.
 Calculate the value of R.
 Finally, select values of R1 and RF to set the desired
gain.

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Design a low pass filter at a cutoff frequency of
1 kH z with a pass band gain of 2
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 Solution:
 Given fH = 1 kHz. Let C = 0.01 µF.
 Therefore, R can be obtained as

##  Since the pass band gain is 2, R1 and RF must be

equal. Let R1 = R2 = 10 kΩ.

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Single pole high pass filter
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+V
C1
+
vin R1
vout
- Rf1
-V

Rf2

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Double pole low pass filter
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C2

+V
R2 R1
+
vin
C1 vout
- Rf1
-V

Rf2

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Two-Stage Band-Pass Filter
C2 R4

+V
R2 R1 +V
+ C4 C3
vin +
C1 - R3
Rf1 - vout
-V
Rf3
-V
Rf2
Rf4
Stage 1 Stage 2
Two-pole low-pass Two-pole high-pass
Av
BW = f2 – f1
Stage 2 Stage 1 Q = f0 / BW
response BW response

f
f1 fo f2