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The Bell–Delaware Method

P. R. Dhamangaonkar

Ref: Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design,


By Ramesh K. Shah and Dušan P. Sekulic

Department of Mechanical Engineering


College of Engineering, Pune (COEP)
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In this method the flow fraction for each stream on the shell side is
found by knowing the corresponding flow areas and flow resistances.
The shell-side heat transfer coefficient hs is given by
hs= hid Jc JlJb Js Jr
Where
hid is the heat transfer coefficient for the pure cross-flow stream (B stream) evaluated
at a Reynolds number at or near the centerline of the shell.
Jc is the correction factor for baffle configuration (baffle cut and spacing)
Jl is the correction factor for baffle leakage effects and takes into account both the
shell-to-baffle (E stream) and tube-to-baffle hole (A stream) leakages.
Jb is the correction factor for bundle and pass partition bypass (C and F) streams and
is dependent on the flow bypass area and number of sealing strips.
Js is the correction factor for baffle spacing that is larger at the inlet and outlet
sections than in the center
Jr is the correction factor for the adverse temperature gradient in laminar flows (at
low Reynolds numbers).
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Correction factors and their values

Factor Information
Jc correction factor for baffle configuration (baffle cut and
spacing). Its value is 1.0 for an exchanger with no tubes in the
windows and increases to 1.15 for small baffle cuts and
decreases to 0.65 for large baffle cuts.
For a typical well-designed heat exchanger, its value is near 1.0.
Jl correction factor for baffle leakage effects, including both tube-
to-baffle and baffle to-shell leakages. It is a function of the ratio
of the total leakage area per baffle to the cross-flow area
between adjacent baffles, and also of the ratio of the shell-to-
baffle leakage area to tube-to-baffle leakage area.
A typical value of Jl is in the range 0.7 to 0.8

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Correction factors and their values
Factor Information
Jb correction factor for bundle and pass partition bypass (C and F)
streams. It varies from 0.9 for a relatively small clearance
between the outermost tubes and the shell for fixed tube-sheet
construction to 0.7 for large clearances in pull-though floating
head construction. It can be increased from about 0.7 to 0.9 by
proper use of the sealing strips in a pull-through bundle.
Js correction factor for larger baffle spacing at the inlet and outlet
sections compared to the central baffle spacing. Js usually varies
from 0.85 to 1.0.
Jr correction factor for any adverse temperature gradient buildup in
laminar flows. This correction applies only for shell-side
Reynolds numbers below 100 and fully effective for Res < 20;
otherwise, it is equal to 1.

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The combined correction factor, made up of five correction factors, in a
well-designed shell-and-tube exchanger is about 0.6

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Shell-Side Pressure Drop.

the shell-side pressure drop is also affected by various leakage and


bypass streams in a segmentally baffled exchanger.
The shell-side pressure drop has three components:
(1) pressure drop in the central (cross-flow) section, Δpcr;
(2) pressure drop in the window area, Δpw; and
(3) pressure drop in the shell-side inlet and outlet sections, Δpi-o
The ideal pressure drop in the central section, Δpb;id, assumes pure
cross-flow of the fluid across the ideal tube bundle.
This pressure drop should be corrected for
(1) the two leakage streams A and E using the correction factor ζl,
and
(2) the bundle and pass partition bypass flow streams C and F using
the correction factor ζ b.
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The ideal window pressure drop, Δpw, also has to be corrected for both
baffle leakage streams.
Finally, the ideal inlet and outlet section pressure drops, Δpi-o, are based
on an ideal cross-flow pressure drop in the central section.
These pressure drops should be corrected for bypass flow (correction
factor ζb) and for uneven baffle spacing in inlet and outlet sections
(correction factor ζs).
Thus, the total shell-side pressure drop is given as:

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Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Various correction factors are defined as follows:
Factor Description
ζl correction factor for tube-to-baffle and baffle-to-shell leakage (A
and E) streams. Usually, ζl≈ 0:4 to 0.5, although lower values are
possible with small baffle spacing.
ζb correction factor for bypass flow (C and F streams). It is different
in magnitude from Jb and ranges from 0.5 to 0.8, depending on
construction type and the number of sealing strips.
ζs correction factor for inlet & outlet sections having different baffle
spacing from that of the central section in the range 0.5 to 2.

The combined effect of pressure drop corrections reduces the ideal total shell-side
pressure drop to 20 to 30% of the pressure drop that would be calculated for flow
through the corresponding exchanger without baffle leakages and bundle bypass
streams

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Correction Factors for the Pressure Drop on the Shell Side by the
Bell–Delaware Method

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Dotl :The diameter of the outer tube limit,
Dctl :The diameter of the circle through
the centers of the outermost tubes,
Nt : The total number of tubes
Θb: Is the angle in radians between two
radii intersected at the inside shell wall
with the baffle cut
θctl : Is the angle in radians between the
baffle cut and two radii of a circle through
Nomenclature for basic baffle the centers of the outermost tubes
geometry relations for a single
segmental exchanger

Department of Mechanical Engineering


College of Engineering, Pune (COEP)
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