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Eular method to solve mathematical equations

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of 300K. Assuming heat is lost only due to radiation, the differential

equation for the temperature of the ball is given by

d

dt

2.2067 10 12 4 81108 , 0 1200 K

Find the temperature at t 480 seconds using Euler’s method. Assume a step size of

h 240 seconds.

1

Solution

Step 1:

d

dt

2.2067 10 12 4 81 10 8

f t , 2.2067 10 12 4 81108

i 1 i f ti , i h

1 0 f t0 , 0 h

1200 f 0,1200240

1200 2.2067 10 12 1200 4 81108 240

1200 4.5579240

106.09 K

1 is the approximate temperature at t t1 t0 h 0 240 240

240 1 106.09K

2

Solution Cont

Step 2: For i 1, t1 240, 1 106.09

2 1 f t1 , 1 h

106.09 f 240,106.09 240

106.09 2.2067 10 12 106.09 4 81 108 240

106.09 0.017595240

110.32 K

480 2 110.32K

3

Solution Cont

solution of a non-linear equation as

300

0.92593 ln 1.8519 tan 1 0.00333 0.22067 10 3 t 2.9282

300

(480) 647.57 K

4

Comparison of Exact and

Numerical Solutions

1400

1200

Temperature, θ(K)

1000

Exact Solution

800

600

400

h=240

200

0

0 100 200 300 400 500

Time, t(sec)

5

Effect of step size

Table 1. Temperature at 480 seconds as a function of step size, h

Step, h (480)

480 −987.81

240 110.32

120 546.77

60 614.97

30 632.77

6

Comparison with exact results

1500

Temperature, θ(K)

500

h=120

h=240

0

0 100 200 300 400 500

-500

Tim e, t (sec) h=480

-1000

-1500

Figure 4. Comparison of Euler’s method with exact solution for different step sizes

7 http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu

Effects of step size on Euler’s

Method

800

400

Temperature,θ(K)

0

0 100 200 300 400 500

-400

Step size, h (s)

-800

-1200

8 http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu

Errors in Euler’s Method

It can be seen that Euler’s method has large errors. This can be illustrated using

Taylor series.

1 d2y 1 d3y

y i 1 y i

dy

xi 1 xi 2

x i 1 x i 2

3

x i 1 x i 3

...

dx xi , yi 2! dx x , y 3! dx x , y

i i i i

1 2 1 3

2! 3!

As you can see the first two terms of the Taylor series

f xi , yi 2 f xi , yi 3 Et h 2

Et h h ...

2! 3!

9 http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu

Additional Resources

For all resources on this topic such as digital audiovisual

lectures, primers, textbook chapters, multiple-choice

tests, worksheets in MATLAB, MATHEMATICA, MathCad

and MAPLE, blogs, related physical problems, please

visit

http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu/topics/euler_meth

od.html

THE END

http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu

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