You are on page 1of 36

Background of the Study

it is an overview of factors which have

led to the problem, comprise the
problem and historical significance
relative to the problem.
Statement of the Problem
There should be a general statement of
the whole problem followed by the
specific questions or sub problems into
which the general problem is broken up.
Theoretical Framework
This is the foundation of the research
study. These are highly related theories
and principles that were established and
proven by authorities
refers to the set of interrelated construct,
definitions, and prepositions that
presents a systematic view of
Theoretical Framework
an organized body that explains what
has been done and what has been said
on the topic or problem being
as stated by Grant and Osanloo
(2014), “Without a theoretical framework,
the structure and vision for a study is
unclear, much like a house that cannot
be constructed without a blueprint.
What must be obtained from a theory?

The name/s of author/s of the theory

must be taken including the place and
the time / year when he or she
postulated such a principle or
the part or parts of the theory that are
relevant to your study
synthesis by relating to your findings
Conceptual Framework
a tentative explanation or theoretical
explanation of the phenomenon or
problem and serves as the basis for
the formulation research hypotheses.
consists of the investigator’s own
position on a problem after his
exposure to various theories that
have bearing on the problem
Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework becomes the
central theme, the focus, the main thrust
of the study. It serves as a guide in
conducting investigation.
Paradigm. A paradigm is a
diagrammatic representation of a
conceptual framework. It depicts in a
more vivid way what the conceptual
framework wants to convey.
Conceptual Framework:
Deductive Reasoning
: In deductive reasoning, a conclusion is
reached reductively by applying general
rules that hold over the entirety of
a closed domain of discourse, narrowing
the range under consideration until only
the conclusion is left.
a method of reasoning by which
concrete applications or consequences
are deducted from general principles or
Kinds of Hypothesis
Research hypothesis is usually
developed from experience, literature or
theory, or combination of these. This is
the expected relationship
between variables.
Null hypothesis is the one that states
NO relationship between varibales. The
function is to let the research test the
hypothesis statistically.
Assumptions and Hypothesis
Historical and descriptive investigations
do not need explicit hypotheses and
assumptions. Only experimental studies
need expressly written assumptions and
Assumptions- a belief that forms one
of the bases for the research. This belief
is not to be tested or supported with
empirical data. Very often belief is not
stated in a research proposal.
Assumptions and Hypothesis
Hypothesis is a tentative answer to a
research question, it can be derived
from the observation before the research is
conducted. This is called inductive
from the theory. This is called deductive
Scope and Delimitations
The scope and delimitations should
include the following:
A brief statement of the general purpose of
the study.
The subject matter and topics studied and
The locale of the study, where the data were
gathered or the entity to which the data
Scope and Delimitations
The population or universe from which the
respondents were selected. This must be
large enough to make generalizations
The period of the study. This is the time,
either months or years, during which the
data were gathered.
Limitations of the Study
include the weaknesses of the study
beyond the control of the researcher.
The weaknesses spring out of the
inaccuracies of the perceptions of the
is the operationalized way in which the
attribute is represented for further data
Values of each variable statistically
"vary" (or are distributed) across the
variable's domain
Basically, a variable is any factor that
can be controlled, changed, or
measured in an experiment.
Types of Variables
The independent variable is the one
condition that you change in an
The dependent variable is the variablethat
you measure or observe. It is the factor
that is dependent on the state of the
independent variable.
Types of Variables
A controlled variable or constant
variable is a variable that does not
change during an experiment.
Extraneous variables are "extra"
variables that may influence the
outcome of an experiment, but aren't
taken into account during measurement.
Significance of the Study
The rationale, timeliness and/or
relevance of the study. The rationale,
timeliness and/or relevance of the study
to existing conditions must be explained
or discussed.
Possible solutions to existing problemsor
improvement to unsatisfactory
Significance of the Study
Who are to be benefited and how they
are going to be benefited. It must be
shown who are the individuals, groups,
or communities who may be placed in a
more advantageous position on account
of the study.
Possible contribution to the fund of
Significance of the Study
Possible implications. It should be
discussed here that the implications
include the possible causes of the
problems discovered, the possible
effects of the problems, and the
remedial measures to solve the
Definition of Terms
Only terms, words, or phrases which
have special or unique meanings in the
study are defined.
Terms should be defined operationally,
that is how they are used in the study.
The researcher may develop his own
definition from the characteristics of the
term defined.
Definition of Terms
Definitions may be taken from
encyclopedias, books, magazines and
newspaper articles, dictionaries, and
other publications but the researcher
must acknowledge his sources.
Definitions should a\be brief, clear, and
unequivocal as possible.
Acronyms should always be spelled out
Lorelie Abrea
Angela Busa
Jocelyn Baldono