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GROUP 6
I. Definition of t-test
-is a continuous probability distribution that
arises when estimating the mean of a normally
distributed population in situations where the
sample size is small.
- are all parametric tests used at the bivariate
level and all compare means between two groups.

Use t-test if all these conditions occur:

• The probability distribution of the random
variable is appropriately normal
• The sample size is small (n<30)
• The standard deviation is estimated from the
sample
• Kinds of t-test:
Paired t-test ( Dependent t-test or correlated t-
test)
-When each element of a sample is matched to its
corresponding element of the other sample, two
samples are paired. This paired t-test examines
the mean of individual differences of paired
measurements and thus is appropriate for pre-post
situations.

NOTE: use Paired t-Test if you are comparing

the means or average values between two
conditions, either in a pre-test and post-test, of
THE SAME GROUP.
Formula for paired/dependent t-test:

𝑑ത σ 𝑑𝑖
𝑡= , where 𝑑ҧ = ,
𝑠𝑑
ഥ 𝑛

2
σ 𝑑𝑖
σ 𝑑𝑖2 − 𝑠𝑑
𝑠𝑑 = 𝑛
and 𝑠𝑑ത = .
𝑛−1 𝑛

Where:
ഥ = mean of the difference
𝒅
𝒔𝟐𝒅 = variance of the group
𝒏 = number of subjects in a sample
II. Two-Sample Pooled t-test (Independent Samples t-
test with Equal Variances or Uncorrelated t-test)
• T-tests assume that independent samples are randomly
drawn from normally distributed populations with
unknown parameters. The samples are independent in
the sense that they are drawn from different
populations and each element of one sample is not
paired (linked to) with its corresponding element of the
other sample. The population variances of the two
groups 𝜎12 and 𝜎22 need to be equal or willing to
assume equal in order to use the pooled variance.

NOTE: Use Pooled t-Test if we are comparing the means

or average of samples that are independent or mutually
exclusive (e.g. male and female.) and we are WILLING
TO ASSUME that the variances or standard deviation of
two independent samples are THE SAME.
FORMULA for Pooled t- Test (Independent Samples):

𝑥1 −𝑥2 𝑠12 𝑛1 −1 +𝑆22 (𝑛2 −1)

𝑡= , where 𝑠𝑝2 =
𝑛1 +𝑛2 −2
𝑠2
𝑝 𝑠𝑝
2
+
𝑛1 𝑛2

Where:
𝒙𝟏 = mean of sample 1
𝒙𝟐 = mean of sample 2
𝒔𝟐𝒑 = variance of the pooled group
𝒔𝟐𝟏 = variance of sample 1
𝑺𝟐𝟐 = variance of sample 2
𝒏𝟏 = number of subjects in sample 1
𝒏𝟐 = number of subjects in sample 2
NOTE: If 𝒔𝟐𝟏 and 𝑺𝟐𝟐 are not given in the problem,
use this formula to find 𝒔𝟐𝟏 and 𝑺𝟐𝟐 :

2
𝑛 𝑥𝑖 −𝑥ҧ 𝑗
𝑠𝑗2 = σ𝑖=1 ; for 𝑗 = 1,2
𝑛−1

Where:
ഥ𝒋 = mean of each samples.
𝒙
𝒙𝒊 = data of each samples.
𝒔𝟐𝒋 = variance of each samples
II. Meaning of Hypothesis
-Is defined as a proposition placed under
examination, which cannot be accepted as true
unless proven and tested statistically.
• Two kinds of Hypothesis:
1. Null Hypothesis (𝑯𝟎 )
- This expresses the idea of no existence of
relationship or difference between the variables
under study.
2. Alternative Hypothesis (𝑯𝒂 )
- it states the existence of difference or
relationship.
• Directional and Non-directional Hypothesis:
Directional Test of Hypothesis- is considered if the
direction of the difference is stated, that is the self-
concept of one group is more positive than that of the
other group. This test makes use of the one-tailed test
or one-sided test.
Example:
𝐻𝑜 : 𝜇1 > 𝜇2 .or 𝐻𝑎 : 𝜇1 < 𝜇2
Non-directional Test of Hypothesis- makes use of two-
tailed test or two sided test. The test is considered
non-directional if the direction or the nature of the
difference is not stated.
Example:
𝐻𝑜 : 𝜇1 = 𝜇2 or 𝐻𝑎 : 𝜇1 ≠ 𝜇2
III. Steps in testing Hypothesis:

𝐻0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐻𝑎

3) Calculate Degrees of Freedom:

For one sample: 𝑑𝑓 = 𝑛 − 1
For two samples: 𝑑𝑓 = 𝑛1 + 𝑛2 − 2
4) State Decision Rule:
Whether it is one-tailed test or two
tailed-test
A. For Two-Tailed Test, the critical region
(rejection region) consists of two parts
– a lower part on the left end of the
curve of the sampling distribution of
the test statistic and the upper part of
on the right end of the curve.
See figure 1.1
𝐻𝑜 ∶ 𝜇1 = 𝜇2 ; 𝐻𝑎 ∶ 𝜇1 ≠ 𝜇2

Figure 1.1
B. For One-tailed test- the critical region
(rejection region) consists of one part –
either a lower part on the left end of the
curve of the sampling distribution of the
test statistic or an upper part of on the
right end of the curve.
See figure 1.2 and 1.3

Figure 1.2 𝐻𝑜 ∶ 𝜇1 = 𝜇2 ; 𝐻𝑎 ∶ 𝜇1 < 𝜇2

𝐻𝑜 ∶ 𝜇1 = 𝜇2 ; 𝐻𝑎 ∶ 𝜇1 > 𝜇2
Figure 1.3

5. Calculate Test Statistics (t-Test)

6. State Results
7. State Conclusion
Example (Dependent or paired t-test):
1. Researchers want to test a new anti-hunger
weight loss pill. They have 10 people rate their
hunger both before and after taking the pill.
Does the pill do anything? Use 𝛼 = 0.05
Before After
9 7
10 6
7 5
5 4
7 4
5 6
9 7
6 5
8 5
7 7
Solution:
1. Define Null and Alternative Hypothesis
𝐻0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐻𝑎
𝐻𝑜 ∶ 𝜇𝑏𝑒𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑒 = 𝜇𝑎𝑓𝑡𝑒𝑟 ; 𝐻𝑎 ∶ 𝜇𝑏𝑒𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑒 ≠ 𝜇𝑎𝑓𝑡𝑒𝑟

𝛼 = 0.05

3. Calculate Degrees of Freedom

Degrees of Freedom for Dependent Sample t-Test
𝑑𝑓 = 𝑛 − 1
𝑑𝑓 = 10 − 1 = 9
4. State Decision Rule
By the use of our degrees of freedom and 𝜶,
we are going to find for the area of the
rejection area/critical area using the table of
t-distribution.

*If t is less than −2.2622, or greater than 2.2622,

reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative
hypothesis.
5. Calculate Test Statistic (t-Test for
Dependent Sample)

𝑑ത σ 𝑑𝑖
𝑡= , where 𝑑ҧ = ,
𝑠𝑑
ഥ 𝑛

2
σ 𝑑𝑖
σ 𝑑𝑖2 −
𝑛
𝑠𝑑 =
𝑛−1

𝑠𝑑
and 𝑠𝑑ത =
𝑛
Before After Difference (𝑑𝑖 ) Squared of the
Difference (𝑑𝑖2 )

9 7 9-7=2 4
10 6 10-6=4 16
7 5 7-5=2 4
5 4 5-4=1 1
7 4 7-4=3 9
5 6 5-6=-1 1
9 7 9-7=2 4
6 5 6-5=1 1
8 5 8-5=3 9
7 7 7-7=0 0

෍ 𝑑𝑖 = 17 ෍ 𝑑𝑖2 = 49
Using the table above, we can now solve for the
following equations:

σ 𝑑𝑖 17
A. 𝑑ҧ = 𝑛
=
10
= 1.7

2
σ 𝑑𝑖 17 2 289
σ 𝑑𝑖2 − 49− 49−
𝑛 10 10
B. 𝑠𝑑 = 𝑛−1
=
10−1
=
9

49−28.9 20.1
= = = 2.233 = 𝟏. 𝟒𝟗
9 9
𝑠𝑑 1.49 1.49
C. 𝑠𝑑ത = 𝑛
=
10
=
3.162
= 𝟎. 𝟒𝟕𝟏

𝑑ത 1.7
D. 𝑡 = 𝑠𝑑
=
0.471
= 𝟑. 𝟔𝟏

6. State Result:
• If less than −2.2622, or greater than
2.2622, reject the null hypothesis and
accept the alternative hypothesis.
Since 𝑡 = 3.61 > 2.2622, we do not
accept 𝐻𝑂 , then we accept 𝐻𝑎 .

7. State Conclusion:
• The anti-hunger weight loss pill significantly
affected hunger, 𝑡 = 3.61, 𝑝 < 0.05.
Example of Independent T-TEST with
Assumed Equal Variance (Pooled t-test)
2. A statistic teacher wants to compare his two
classes to see if they performed any
differently on the tests he gave that
semester. Class A had 25 students with an
average score of 70, standard deviation 15.
Class B had 20 students with an average score
of 74, standard deviation 25. Using 𝛼 = 0.05,
did these two classes perform differently on
the tests?
Solution:
1. Define Null and Alternative Hypothesis
𝐻0 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐻𝑎
𝐻𝑜 ∶ 𝜇1 = 𝜇2 ; 𝐻𝑎 ∶ 𝜇1 ≠ 𝜇2

𝛼 = 0.05

3. Calculate Degrees of Freedom

For Two Samples:
𝑑𝑓 = 𝑛1 + 𝑛2 − 2
𝑑𝑓 = 25 + 20 − 2 = 43
State Decision Rule:
5. By the use of our degrees of freedom and 𝜶,
we are going to find for the area of the
rejection area/critical area using the table
of t-distribution.

−2.0167 2.0167

*If t is less than −2.0167, or greater than 2.0167,

reject the null hypothesis and accept alternative
hypothesis.
5.Calculate Test Statistic
(t-Test for Independent
Sample) Given the
following:
𝑡=
𝑥1 −𝑥2
, 𝑥1 = 70
𝑠2
𝑝 𝑠2
𝑝
𝑥2 = 74
+
𝑛1 𝑛2 𝑠12 = 15
𝑠22 = 25
where 𝑠2 = 𝑛1 = 25
𝑝
𝑠12 𝑛1 −1 +𝑆22 (𝑛2 −1) 𝑛2 = 20
.
𝑛1 +𝑛2 −2
We now solve for the following equations:

𝒔𝟐𝟏 𝒏𝟏 −𝟏 +𝑺𝟐𝟐 (𝒏𝟐 −𝟏)

A. 𝒔𝟐𝒑 =
𝒏𝟏 +𝒏𝟐 −𝟐

1525 2
− 1 + 25 2 (20 − 1)
𝑠𝑝2 =
25 + 20 − 2
(225) 24 + (625) 19
=
43
5400 + 11875
=
43
17275
=
43
𝑠𝑝2 = 𝟒𝟎𝟏. 𝟕𝟒
𝑥1 −𝑥2
B. 𝑡 =
𝑠2
𝑝 𝑠2
𝑝
+
𝑛1 𝑛2

70 − 74
𝑡=
401.74 401.74
+
25 20

−4
=
36.16

𝑡 = −𝟎. 𝟔𝟕
6. State Result:
*If t is less than −2.0167, or greater than
2.0167, reject the null hypothesis and accept
the alternative hypothesis.
Since −2.0167 < 𝑡 = −0.67 < 2.0167, then we
accept 𝐻0 .

7. State Conclusion:
There was no significant difference between
the test performances of Class A and Class B,
𝑡 = −0.67, 𝑝 > 0.05.
Classmates try to solve these problems: ^^,

1. A researcher would like to find out the perception of the

patients regarding pre-operative teachings given by the health
team. A sample of 12 patients from the general surgical ward
and another 12 patients from OB surgical ward were taken. The
patients have similar characteristics in terms of SES, duration
of stay in the hospital etc. a questionnaire-checklist was
utilized to determine their perceptions. The following are the
perceptions expressed in terms of the raw scores:

Group A (OB-surg ward): 20, 27, 28, 20, 15, 17, 18, 25, 25, 25, 22, 28
Group B (gen surg ward): 17, 17, 17, 30, 25, 15, 22, 30, 20, 25, 25, 15

Determine if there’s a significant difference in the perceptions of

the patients. Compute at 𝛼 = 0.05.
2. A professor tried to compare the performance of the students
in the pre-board examination and the licensure examination. A
random sampling was used and the results were as follows:

90 82
91 86
86 90
78 72
78 78
65 76
87 70
88 65
92 85
74 80
75 70
89 80
76 75
79 82

Use 𝛼 = 0.05 and determine if there’s a significant difference

between the exams.