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Fire Services


• With the technological advances on all fronts, not only the factor of
susceptibility, but the complexity of fires, explosions and the hazards which
these buildings are exposed to have also increased manyfold. These hazards
have been instrumental in causing heavy losses in lives and property
throwing up fresh challenges to planners, architects and fire protection
services in evolving better and improved methods of design and fire
protection in order to mitigate such losses.
• Basic components of a fire are:
– fuel
– source of ignition
– oxygen
– process of combustion
• Commonly referred to as the "fire tetrahedron

The code has been divided into basic three text clauses:

• Fire Prevention — Covering aspects of fire prevention pertaining to design and

construction of buildings on passive fire protection measures, also describing the
various types of building materials and their fire rating.

• Life Safety — Covering life safety provisions in the event of fire and similar
emergencies, also addressing construction and occupancy features that are
necessary to minimize danger to life from fire, smoke, fumes or panic.

• Fire Protection — covering the significant appurtenances and their related

components and guidelines for selecting the correct type of equipment and
installation meant for fire protection of the building, depending upon the
classification and type of the building.
The code endeavours to avoid requirements that might involve unreasonable

hardships or unnecessary inconvenience or interference with the normal use and

occupancy of the building but provides for fire safety consistent with the public

interest. The level of life safety from fire is defined through requirements directed at

the following.
 Prevention of ignition
 Detection of fire
 Control of fire development
 Confinements of the effects of fire
 Extinguishment of fire
 Provision of refuge or evacuation facilities or both
 Staff reaction
 Provision of fire safety information to occupants.
• Introduction
• Basics of HVAC System
Outline • Fire Safety Controls in HVAC- Underlying need
• Fire Safety Controls in HVAC- Classification
• National Building Code (NBC)
Reference to • ASHRAE 62
Codes • NFPA 90A, 90B, 101

Ventilation & Smoke Management

Fire Detection
Fire Communication & Emergency Response

System Controls, reliability, Operation & Maintenance

Materials & Construction for HVAC components for PASSIVE

fire safety

• There are five fundamental elements of fire protection engineering; these
are shown in Table below:-
Types Of Protection System

Active fire protection systems such as water sprinkler and spray systems are
widely used in the process industries for protection of installations and
warehouses. The duty of the fire protection system may be to extinguish the
fire or provide exposure protection to prevent domino effects.
“Ordinary” combustibles
Paper, wood, rubber,
and textiles.

“Flammable liquids”
Oil, gasoline, solvents

“Energized circuits”
Electrical equipment
and computers

• Works by cooling.
• Numerical rating indicates amount of agent,
duration, and range of discharge on test fires.
• Area of Class A fire which a “non-expert” can
extinguish, with proper training
– 1-A is equivalent on Class-A fire to five liters of water.
– 2-A contains has twice as much extinguishing agent.

• Works by blanketing the fuel.

• Interrupts chemical reaction at fuel surface.
• Class B ratings signify the area in square feet
of flammable liquid fire a unit will extinguish
when used, by a trained, “non-expert.”

• Class “C” units have no numerical rating.

• A Class “C” rating doesn’t imply any capacity.
• Only indicates that the extinguishing agent is
non-conductive, safe on energized equipment.
• Works by displacing oxygen, smothering fire.
Types of Fire and Appropriate
Extinguishing Agents
• Class A - Fires Involving Solid Materials, Usually of an Organic Nature, in which Combustion
Normally Takes Place with the Formation of Glowing Embers
– Class A fires are those involving solid cellulosic materials such as wood, rags, cloth,
paper, cardboard, clothing, bedding, rope and other materials such as plastic etc.
– Cooling by large quantities of water, or the use of extinguishing agents containing a
large proportion of water, is of primary importance when fighting fires involving
ordinary combustible material. Class A materials can support deep-seated and
smouldering fires long after visible flames are extinguished. Therefore, cooling the
source and surrounding area should continue long enough to ensure that no re-ignition
of deep-seated fires is possible.

• Class B - Fires Involving Liquids or Liquefiable Solids

– Class B fires are those that occur in the vapour/air mixture over the surface of
flammable and combustible liquids such as crude oil, gasoline, petrochemicals, fuel and
lubricating oils, and other hydrocarbon liquids as well as liquefiable solids, such as tar,
wax and many plastics.
• These fires are extinguished by isolating the source of fuel (stopping the flow of fuel),
inhibiting the release of combustible vapors or by interrupting the chemical reaction of the
combustion process. Since most Class B materials burn with greater intensity and re-ignite
more readily than Class A materials, more effective extinguishing agents are generally
• Class C - Fires Involving Gases
– Class C fires involve natural gas, liquid petroleum gases and industrial gases.

• Class D - Fires Involving Metals

– Class D fires involve combustible metals or powdered metals such as magnesium, titanium,
potassium and sodium. These metals burn at high temperatures and react violently with
water, air and/or other chemicals. Fire extinguishers for use on Class D fires do not have a
multi-purpose rating and must match the type of metal involved.
– Extinguishers rated for Class D fires have a label listing the metals that the extinguisher can be
used on.

• Class F - Fires Involving Cooking Media (Vegetable or Animal Oils and Fats) in
Cooking Appliances
– Class F fires involve high temperature cooking oils used in large catering kitchens etc.
Conventional extinguishers are not effective for cooking oil fires, as they do not cool
sufficiently or may even cause flash back, thereby putting the operator at risk.
Extinguishing Agents
Extinguishing agents act by heat removal (cooling), by smothering (oxygen exclusion) or by flame
inhibition (interfering chemically with the combustion process).

 Cooling Agents
– The direct application of a water jet onto a fire is an effective fire-fighting method for
Class A fires only. A wetting agent added to water may reduce the amount of water
needed to extinguish fires in tightly packed Class A materials as it increases the effective
penetration of water by lowering its surface tension.
– For fires involving hydrocarbon liquids, water is used primarily to minimize escalation of
a fire by cooling exposed surfaces. Water spray and water fog may be used for making a
heat screen between the fire and fire-fighting personnel and equipment. If foam is not
available, a water mist can be used to extinguish fires involving shallow pools of heavy

– Foam has a limited heat absorbing effect and should not normally be used for cooling.
 Smothering Agents
• Foam
The primary extinguishing action of foam is by smothering. Foam is an aggregation of small
bubbles, of lower specific gravity than oil or water, which flows across the surface of a
burning liquid and forms a coherent smothering blanket. A good foam blanket seals against
flammable vapour loss, provides some cooling of the fuel surface by the absorption of heat,
isolates the fuel surface from the oxygen supply, and separates the flammable vapour layer
from other ignition sources (e.g. flames or extremely hot metal surfaces), thereby
eliminating combustion. A good foam blanket will resist disruption due to wind and draught,
or heat and flame impingement, and will reseal when its surface is broken or disturbed.
Foam is an electrical conductor and should not be applied to energised electrical equipment.

• Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide is an effective smothering agent for extinguishing fires in enclosed spaces
where it will not be widely diffused and where personnel can be evacuated quickly (e.g.
machinery spaces, pumprooms and electrical switchboard rooms). Carbon dioxide is
comparatively ineffective on an open deck or jetty area.

• Steam
Steam is inefficient as a total smothering agent because of the substantial delay that may
occur before sufficient air is displaced from an enclosure to render the atmosphere incapable
of supporting combustion. Steam should not be injected into any space containing an un-
ignited flammable atmosphere due to the possibility of static electricity generation.
• Sand
Sand is relatively ineffective as an extinguishing agent and is only useful for small fires on
hard surfaces. Its primary use is to dry up small spills.

• Flame Inhibiting Agents

Flame inhibitors are materials that interfere chemically with the combustion process and
thereby extinguish the flames. However, cooling and removal of fuel is also necessary if
reignition is to be prevented.

• Dry Chemical
Dry chemical, as a flame inhibitor, is a material that extinguishes the flames of a fire by
interfering chemically with the combustion process. Dry chemicals have a negligible cooling
effect and, if re-ignition due to the presence of hot metal surfaces is to be prevented, the
fuel must be removed or cooled using water.

• Vaporizing Liquids
Vaporizing liquids, in the same way as dry chemical powder, have a flame inhibiting and also
a slight smothering effect.
Fire Extinguishers
• Basic types of fire extinguishers
The two most common types of extinguishers in laboratories are pressurized dry chemical
(Type BC or ABC, left) and carbon dioxide (CO2, right) extinguishers:

• "clean agent" extinguishers besides CO2, particularly if your workplace has sensitive
electronic devices such as computers. Those who work with flammable metals may also have
a specialized Class D dry powder extinguisher for use on fires (in a pinch, a bucket of dry sand
will do, but you really should have a Class D unit if you work with such materials). Water-
filled extinguishers are not acceptable for chemistry laboratory use.

• CO2 and Halon
Typical extinguishers
• Water extinguishers (not pictured and not found in laboratories) are suitable for class A
(paper, wood etc.) fires, but not for class B, C and D fires such as burning liquids, electrical
fires or reactive metal fires. In these cases, the flames will be spread or the hazard made
greater! Water mist extinguishers are suitable for class A and C.
• Dry chemical extinguishers are useful for either class ABC or class BC fires (check the label)
and are your best all around choice for common fire situations. They have an advantage over
CO2 and "clean agent" extinguishers in that they leave a blanket of non-flammable material
on the extinguished material which reduces the likelihood of reignition. They also make a
terrible mess - but if the choice is a fire or a mess, take the mess! Note that there are two
kinds of dry chemical extinguishers:
• Type BC fire extinguishers contain sodium or potassium bicarbonate.
• Type ABC fire extinguishers contain ammonium phosphate

• CO2 (carbon dioxide) extinguishers are for class B and C fires. They don't work very well on
class A fires because the material usually reignites. CO2 extinguishers have an advantage over
dry chemical in that they leave behind no harmful residue. That makes carbon dioxide (or
Halotron I or FE-36; see below) a good choice for an electrical fire involving a computer or
other delicate instrument. Note that CO2 is a bad choice for a flammable metal fires such as
Grignard reagents, alkyllithiums and sodium metal because CO2 reacts with these materials.
CO2 extinguishers are not approved for class D fires!
• Metal/Sand Extinguishers are for flammable metals (class D fires) and work by
simply smothering the fire. The most common extinguishing agent in this class is
sodium chloride, but there are a variety of other options. You should have an
approved class D unit if you are working with flammable metals. The following
types of class D extinguishing units are available:
• Sodium chloride (NaCl) works well for metal fires involving magnesium, sodium (spills and in depth),
potassium, sodium/potassium alloys, uranium and powdered aluminum. Heat from the fire causes the
agent to cake and form a crust that excludes air and dissipates heat.
• Powdered copper metal (Cu metal) is preferred for fires involving lithium and lithium alloys.
Developed in conjunction with the U.S. Navy, it is the only known lithium fire fighting agent which will
cling to a vertical surface thus making it the preferred agent on three dimensional and flowing fires.
• Graphite-based powders are also designed for use on lithium fires. This agent can also be effective on
fires involving high-melting metals such as zirconium and titanium.
• Specially-designed sodium bicarbonate-based dry agents can suppress fires with most metal alkyls,
pyrophoric liquids which ignite on contact with air, such as triethylaluminum, but do not rely on a
standard BC extinguisher for this purpose.
• Sodium carbonate-based dry powders can be used with most Class D fires involving sodium,
potassium or sodium/potassium alloys. This agent is recommended where stress corrosion of stainless
steel must be kept to an absolute minimum.
Type of Extinguisher to be Used
• The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) classifies fires into five general categories
(U.S.): Class A fires are ordinary materials like burning paper, lumber, cardboard, plastics etc.
• Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, and
common organic solvents used in the laboratory.
• Class C fires involve energized electrical equipment, such as appliances, switches, panel
boxes, power tools, hot plates and stirrers. Water can be a dangerous extinguishing medium
for class C fires because of the risk of electrical shock unless a specialized water mist
extinguisher is used.
• Class D fires involve combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, potassium and
sodium as well as pyrophoric organometallic reagents such as alkyllithiums, Grignards and
diethylzinc. These materials burn at high temperatures and will react violently with water,
air, and/or other chemicals. Handle with care!!
• Class K fires are kitchen fires. This class was added to the NFPA portable extinguishers
Standard 10 in 1998. Kitchen extinguishers installed before June 30, 1998 are
"grandfathered" into the standard.

• Despite the many new techniques which have come to the assistance of
firemen, water is still the most efficient, cheapest and most readily
available medium for extinguishing fires of a general nature. The method
of applying water to a fire varies according to the size of the fire.
• For major fires, greater quantities of water are necessary, and the built-in
pumps driven by the vehicle’s engines are often capable of pumping 4500
litres (1000 gallons) per minute (or more) giving the necessary energy to
the water to provide adequate striking power.
• Some of the special properties which make water as the most efficient
and generally accepted extinguishing agent are:
• Water has a high sepecific heat capacity are 4.2 kJ / kg / per C
• Water has a high latent heat heat of evaporation per unit mass,atleast 4
times higher than that of any other non flammable liquid
• It is outstandingly non-toxic


• Foam as used by fire brigades is usually generated by the mechanical
agitation of a diluted foam compound solution in the presence of air.
• Classification
• Foam concentrates can be classified in two ways:-
(i) Classification by Expansion
Low expansion (LX)
Medium expansion (MX)
High expansion (HX)
• Expansion Ratio
Low expansion up to 50:1 (Usually between 5:1 and 15:1) Medium
Expansion: Between 50:1 and 500:1 (Usually between 75:1 and 150:1)
High Expansion: Between 500:1 and 1000:1 (Usually between 750:1 and

• Water Mist
• Fine Water Mist technology relies on relatively small (less than 200
microns) droplet sprays to extinguish fires. The three methods of
application of Water Mist are:
(i) Fixed installation - in a compartment / room for total flooding
(ii) Fixed spray nozzles, for local application, and
(iii) In portable extinguishers.
• Water Mist extinguishes a flame by adopting the following mechanisms:
(i) Mist droplets evaporate removing heat and producing cooling
(gas phase cooling, which acts as the primary fire suppression factor)
(ii) The fine droplets evaporate in the hot environment even before
reaching the flame, generating steam and effecting smothering
(oxygen depletion)
(iii) The mist blocks radiative heat transfer between the fire and the
• Water Mist
• There are currently two basic types of water mist suppression systems:
single and dual fluid systems. Single fluid systems utilise water stored at
40-200 bar pressure and spray nozzles which deliver droplets of size 10-
100 microns diameter range.
• Dual systems use air, Nitrogen or other gas to atomise water at the nozzle.
Both types are promising fire suppression systems.
• Water mist system using pure water do not present a toxicological and
physiological hazard and are safe for use in occupied areas. Also there are
no concerns regarding ozone depletion or global warming or atmospheric
lifetime potentials.
• Fine Solid Particulate Technology
• Extinguishment is achieved by combined action of two factors such as
flame cooling due to aerosol particles heating and vaporising in the flame
front as well as a chemical action on the radical level. Solid aerosols must
act directly upon the flame. Gases serve as a mechanism for delivering
aerosol towards the seat of a fire.
Water Based Fire Fighting Systems (WFS)

• WFS use water in the form of droplets.

• Depending on the system type the average droplet size may vary from
very small droplets for so called High Pressure Water Mist Systems up to
relatively large droplets as created by so called Deluge or Sprinkler
• The following main fire fighting effects are used by all WFS. Depending on
the droplet sizes used the efficiency in making use of these potential
effects varies.
1. Cooling
2. Suffocation of the Fire
3. Separation Effect
4. Shielding Effect
Extinguishing Properties of Water

• Cooling – depends on how quickly water is applied, how

much is applied and what form.
– Water absorbs the most heat when it is converted to steam and that is
more easily performed from droplets.
• Smothering – foaming agent is usually added to the water.
• Emulsification – Cools surface of flammable liquids and
prevents release of flammable vapors.
• Dilution – for fires in water-soluble flammable materials.

• Water being the main extinguishing medium, major fires have to be controlled
and extinguished by the use of water from fire fighting hoses operated by the
regular fire services. This fire fighting water is usually obtained from hydrants
installed on public mains or other premises.
• Hydrant Systems can be of two types:
(a) External Hydrant System, where the hydrants are installed in the open, like
the city or town water mains, or hydrant systems installed in the open areas in
industrial or such other occupancies; and
(b) Internal Hydrant System, installed in buildings or structures to be protected
• The basic requirements of any hydrant systems are:
• (a) Water reservoir or source of water supply (for supply of water for fire fighting
• (b) Pump(s) for imparting energy to the water (for conveying water through pipe
lines, and to make water available at the required pressures for fire fighting

(c) Pipelines, which may be laid underground or above ground, for conveying
water under pressure to the required places;
(d) Hydrants (which are the outlets installed on the pipelines at strategic
locations on the water mains for drawing water, using delivery hoses, for fire
fighting purposes
Fire Hydrants
(i) Fire hydrants provide the means of drawing water from the water mains for
fire fighting. The water main is provided with a branch or T-piece to which the
hydrant is attached either directly or with a short length of pipe.
(ii) There are two types of hydrants - stand-post type, or underground
type(sluice-valve type)

• The capacities of pumps for hydrant systems can vary according the risks
to be covered.

• Note: In an extra high hazard industry, like Reliance Petroleum Ltd., in

Jamnagar, the fire fighting pumps are each of the following capacities:
290 17400 1044

• Automatic sprinklers are devices for automatically distributing water upon
a fire in sufficient quantity to extinguish it completely or to prevent its
spread, by keeping the fire under control, by the water discharged from
the sprinklers.
• The water for fire fighting is fed to the sprinklers through a system of
piping, normally suspended from the ceiling, with the sprinklers installed
at intervals along the pipes.
• Automatic sprinkler systems are quite effective for ensuring life safety,
since they give early warning of the existence of fire and simultaneously
start application of water on to the fire which will help control and
extinguishment of the fire.
• The downward force of the water spray from the sprinklers also help
minimize the smoke accumulation in the room of fire besides cooling the
environment and promoting survival of the occupants.

Types of Sprinkler Systems:

There are four main types of sprinkler systems:
Wet - The pipes are permanently charged with water and used for all
locations except where freezing temperatures are likely to occur or special
conditions exist.
Dry - The pipes are normally charged with air under pressure.
Alternate - Can be arranged to be either wet or dry depending upon ambient
temperature conditions.
Pre-action - The pipes are normally charged with air, and get filled with water
when a fire actuates a separate detection system. Sprinkler heads then
operate individually.
• Upright (typical use - basement)
• Pendent (typical use – office)
• Sidewall (areas where upright or pendent cannot be installed because of
site conditions)

Wet pipe systems

• The Wet pipe sprinkler systems are installed more often than all other types
of fire sprinkler systems. They also are the most reliable, because they are
simple, with the only operating components being the automatic sprinklers
and (commonly, but not always) the automatic alarm check valve. An
automatic water supply provides water under pressure to the system piping.

• Operation - When an automatic

sprinkler is exposed for a
sufficient time to a temperature at
or above the temperature rating,
the heat sensitive element (glass
bulb or fusible link) releases,
allowing water to flow from that

• Advantages of using a wet pipe fire sprinkler system include:

System simplicity and reliability - Wet pipe sprinkler systems have the least
number of components and therefore, the lowest number of items to
• Relative low installation and maintenance expense - Due to their overall
simplicity, wet pipe sprinklers require the least amount of installation time and
capital. Maintenance cost savings are also realized since less service time is
generally required, compared to other system types.
• Ease of modification - Wet pipe fire sprinkler systems are advantageous since
modifications involve shutting down the water supply, draining pipes and making
• Short term down time following a fire - Wet pipe sprinkler systems require the
least amount of effort to restore. Preaction and dry-pipe systems may require
additional effort to reset control equipment.
• Disadvantages of using a wet pipe fire sprinkler system include:
• Wet pipe systems are not suited for sub-freezing environments.
• There may also be a concern where piping is subject to severe impact damage
and could consequently leak
Dry Pipe System

• Dry pipe systems are installed in spaces in which the ambient temperature
may be cold enough to freeze the water in a wet pipe system, rendering the
system inoperable.. In regions using NFPA regulations, dry pipe systems
cannot be installed unless the range of ambient temperatures reaches below
• Operation - Water is not present in the piping until the system operates.
The piping is filled with air below the water supply pressure.

• "Deluge" systems are systems in which all sprinklers connected to the

water piping system are open, in that the heat sensing operating element is
removed, or specifically designed as such. These systems are used for
special hazards where rapid fire spread is a concern, as they provide a
simultaneous application of water over the entire hazard.
• Water is not present in the piping until the system operates. Because the
sprinkler orifices are open, the piping is at atmospheric pressure. To
prevent the water supply pressure from forcing water into the piping,
a deluge valve is used in the water supply connection, which is a
mechanically latched valve. It is a non-resetting valve, and stays open once
• Operation - Activation of a fire alarm initiating device, or a manual pull
station, signals the fire alarm panel, which in turn signals the deluge valve
to open, allowing water to enter the piping system. Water flows from all
sprinklers simultaneously.

• Pre-action sprinkler systems are specialized for use in locations where

accidental activation is undesired, such as in museums with rare art works,
manuscripts, or books; and Data Centers, for protection of computer
equipment from accidental water discharge.
• Pre-action systems are hybrids of wet, dry, and deluge systems, depending
on the exact system goal. There are two main sub-types of pre-action
systems: single interlock, and double interlock.
• The operation of single interlock systems are similar to dry systems except
that these systems require that a “preceding” fire detection event.. The
intent is to reduce the undesirable time delay of water delivery to sprinklers
that is inherent in dry systems. Prior to fire detection, if the sprinkler
operates, or the piping system develops a leak, loss of air pressure in the
piping will activate a trouble alarm. In this case, the pre-action valve will
not open due to loss of supervisory pressure, and water will not enter the
• Advantages of using pre-action fire sprinkler systems include:
• The dual action required for water release - The pre-action valve must
operate and sprinkler heads must fuse. This feature provides an added level of
protection against inadvertent discharge. For this reason, preaction systems
are frequently employed in water sensitive environments such as archival
vaults, fine art storage rooms, rare book libraries and computer centers.
• Disadvantages of using pre-action fire sprinkler systems include:
• Higher installation and maintenance costs - Preaction systems are more
complex with several additional components, notably a fire detection system.
This adds to the overall system cost.
• Modification difficulties - As with dry-pipe systems, preaction sprinkler
systems have specific size limitations which may impact future system
modifications. In addition, system modifications must incorporate changes to
the fire detection and control system to ensure proper operation.
• Potential decreased reliability - The higher level of complexity associated
with preaction systems creates an increased chance that something may not
work when needed. Regular maintenance is essential to ensure reliability.

A foam water fire sprinkler system is a special application system, discharging

a mixture of water and low expansion foam concentrate, resulting in a foam
spray from the sprinkler. These systems are usually used with special
hazards occupancies associated with high challenge fires, such
as flammable liquids, and airport hangars.
Operation is as described above, depending on the system type into which
the foam is injected.
Types of Valves
Gate Valve

Outside Screw
Post And Yoke
Butterfly Indicator (OS&Y)
Types of Fire Hydrants
Stem Nut
Hose Outlet
Operating Stem Valve Seal

Operating Stem

Main Valve Check

Drain Hole
Wet Barrel
Dry Barrel

• Used in climates where freezing weather is expected.

• Compression, gate, or knuckle-joint opens either with pressure or against
• When hydrant is closed, the barrel is empty from the hydrant down to the
main valve.
• Any water remaining in hydrant should be drained.

Wet-Barrel Fire Hydrants

• Are used in areas that do not have freezing weather.

• Are always filled with water to the valves near the discharges.
Hydrant Flow & Location
• Flow — Varies; coloring hydrants helps indicate range of water flow
• Location
– Should not be spaced more than 300 feet apart in high-value districts
– Are usually placed near each street intersection, with intermediate
hydrants where distances between intersections exceed 350 to 400
Hydrant Inspection & Maintenance
• Obstructions preventing pumper- • Rust or corrosion
to-hydrant connections • Hydrant caps stuck in place with
• Outlets facing proper direction for paint
pumper-to-hydrant connections • Operable operating stem (easily
• Sufficient clearance between the turned)
outlets and ground for hose • Obstructions (bottles, cans,
connections rocks) inside hydrant restricting
• Damage water flow
Parts of a Sprinkler Head


Lever Release
Arms Mechanism
(Fusible Link)
Releasing Mechanisms


Chemical Fusible Link

Pellet (Quick

Sprinkler Head Activation


1. Heat from fire

heats liquid in
bulb & breaks.
2. Releases cap.
3. Water is released
onto diffuser.
4. Water puts out
Sprinkler Head Temp Ratings

• Sprinkler heads are designed with temperature ratings

ranging from 135oF to as high as 500oF.
• Ratings of 165oF are common for use in buildings maintained
at normal, constant temperatures.
Sprinkler Bulb Colors

Temperature Rating Temperature Glass Bulb Color

(oF) Classification
135-170 Ordinary Orange or red
175-225 Intermediate Yellow or green
250-300 High Blue
325-375 Extra High Purple
400-475 Very Extra High Black
500-575+ Ultra High Black
Sprinkler Head Designs

Control Valve Location

The main control

valve should always
be returned to and
secured in the OPEN
Main reason
Main Control
Valve sprinklers fail –
human error,
sprinklers shut off.
Sprinkler System Main Control Valve

• Purpose — Cutting off the water supply to the

system so that sprinklers can be replaced,
maintenance performed, or operations interrupted
• Location — Immediately under the sprinkler alarm
valve, the dry-pipe or deluge valve, or outside the
building near the system connections
• Position after maintenance — Open
• Type — Manual indicating valve
Sprinkler-Related NFPA Standards

• NFPA 13 – Installation of Sprinkler Systems

• NFPA 13D – Installation of Sprinkler Systems in
Family Dwellings
• NFPA 13R – Installation of Sprinkler Systems in
Residential Occupancies up to 4 stories
• NFPA 14 – Installation of Standpipe & Hose Systems
• NFPA 15 – Water Spray Fixed Systems
• NFPA 16 – Installation of Foam-Water Systems
• NFPA 25 – Inspection, Testing & Maintenance of
Water-Based Fire Protection Systems