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Chapter 3: Mobile Radio Propagation

Large-Scale Path Loss


Goal of the Chapter
 Radio channels are random and difficult to analyze
 Interference, path loss, fading

 Properties and hindrances in electromagnetic propagation


 Reasons why wireless signals are hard to send and receive in
wireless channel

 Modeling of electromagnetic propagation


 Predict average received signal strength (and rate of received
signal strength fluctuations in next Chapter)

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 2


Overview
 Radio wave propagation
 Free space propagation
 Power and electric field
 Propagation mechanisms
 Empirical path-loss models
 Outdoor propagation
 Indoor propagation

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 3


Radio Wave Propagation
 The radio channel places a fundamental limitation on the
performance of wireless communication systems
 The path between transmitter and receiver is either
 Simple line-of-sight or
 Severely obstructed by buildings, mountains, and foliage

 Unlike wired channels that are stationary and predictable,


radio channels are extremely random and time varying
 Even the speed of motion impacts how rapidly the signal level
fades as a mobile terminal moves in space

 Modeling is difficult in mobile radio system and is typically


done in a statistical fashion, based on measurements

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 4


Radio Wave Propagation …
 Electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation mechanisms can
generally be attributed to reflection, diffraction, and
scattering
 E.g., in urban areas there is no direct line-of-sight path between
transmitter and receiver and high rise buildings cause sever
diffraction loss

 Due to multiple reflections from various objects, EM waves


travel along different paths of varying lengths
 The interaction between those waves causes multipath fading at a
specific location

 Strength of the wave decreases as the distance between


the transmitter and receiver increases

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 5


Radio Wave Propagation …
 Propagation models
 Large-scale path loss model
 Small-scale fading model

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 6


Large-Scale Path Loss Model
 Predicts the average received signal strength at a given
distance from the transmitter
 Useful in estimating the coverage area of an antenna
 Characterize signal strength over large transmitter-receiver
(T-R) separation distance
 Several hundreds or thousands of meters

 Typically, the local average received power is computed by


averaging signal measurements over a measurement track
of 5λ to 40λ
 For cellular system in 1~2 GHz, this corresponds to 1~10m

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 7


Small-Scale Fading Model
 Focus on signal strength variation in close spatial proximity
to a particular location
 Characterize the rapid fluctuations of the received signal
strength over
 Very short travel distances (a few wavelengths) or
 Short time durations (in the order of seconds)

 The received power may very by 30-40 dB when the


receiver is moved by fraction of a wavelength
 This is because the received signal is a sum of many contributions
(the phases are random) coming from different directions

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 8


Example: Small and Large-Scale Fading
 Signal variations in an indoor radio communication system
 Signal fades rapidly as the receiver moves
 By more than 20 dBm
 However, the
average signal
decays much more
slowly with distance
(smoothed line)
 Depends on terrain
and obstructions

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 9


Small- and Large-Scale Fading …
 This Chapter covers large-scale propagation and presents
a number of common methods used to predict received
power in mobile comm. sys.

 Chapter 4 treats small-scale fading models and describes


methods to measure and model multi-path in the mobile
radio environment

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 10


Overview
 Radio wave propagation
 Free space propagation
 Power and electric field
 Propagation mechanisms
 Empirical path-loss models
 Outdoor propagation
 Indoor propagation

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 11


Free Space Propagation Model
 Predicts received signal strength when the transmitter and
receiver have a clear, unobstructed line-of- sight path
between them
 E.g., Satellite communication and microwave line-of-sight radio links
 Free space model predicts the received power decay as a function of
the T-R separation distance raised to some power (i.e., a power law
function)

 The power received by the receiver antenna at a distance d


is given by the Friis free space equation
2
   1
Pr ( d )  Pt Gt Gr 
 4d 
 L
(3.1)
 

 Where Pt: transmitted power; Pr: received power; Gt, Gr: antenna
gains; L: system loss factor; : wavelength in meters

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 12


Free Space Propagation …
 System loss factor L is not related to propagation
 Results from line attenuation, filter losses, antenna losses
 L  1 (L=1 indicates no loss in the system)

 The gain of an antenna


4Ae
G (3.2)
 2

 where Ae: the effective aperture related to the physical size of


antenna
 The wavelength is related to the carrier frequency
c 2c
  (3.3)
f c
 where f: the carrier frequency in Hertz
c: the carrier frequency in radians per second
c: the speed of light in meters/sec
 Higher frequency => higher gain for the same size antenna
Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 13
Free Space Propagation …
 Equation (3.1) implies that the received power decays with
distance at a rate of 20dB/decade or square of T-R
separation
 Isotropic radiator
 An ideal antenna which radiates power with unit gain uniformly in
all direction

 Often used to reference antenna gains in wireless systems

 Effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP)=PtGt


Represents the maximum radiated power available from a
transmitter in the direction of maximum antenna gain, as compared
to an isotropic radiator

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 14


Free Space Propagation …
 Path loss: Represents signal attenuation as a positive
quantity measured in dB
 Is defined as the difference between the effective
transmitted and received power

 For free space Pt  Gt Gr 2 


PL(dB) 10 log  10 log  2  (3.4)
Pr  ( 4 ) 2
d 
 which is valid only in the far-field (or Fraunhoffer region) of
transmitting antenna region
2D 2
 That is, the far-field distance df 

 where D is the largest physical linear dimension of antenna

 df must satisfy df >>D and df >> 

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 15


Free Space Propagation …
 Equation (3.1) does not hold for d=0
 Hence, large-scale propagation models use a close-in
distance, d0, as a known received power reference point
 The received power Pr(d) at any distance d>d0 may be
related to Pr(d0)
 The value Pr(d0) may be
 Predicted from Equation (3.1) or
 Measured in the radio environment by taking the average received
power at many points located at d0 from the transmitter

 d0 must be chosen such that


 It lies in the far-field region, that is, d0  df
 It is smaller than any practical distance used in the mobile
communication system
Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 16
Free Space Propagation …
 At a distance greater than d0
2
 d0  (3.5)
Pr (d )  Pr (d 0 )  d  d0  d f
d 
 Pr changes by many orders of magnitude over a typical
coverage area of several kilometers
 Often measured in dBm or dBW

 In units of dBm, the received power is given by


 Pr (d 0 )   d0  (3.6)
Pr (d ) dBm 10 log    20 log   d  d0  d f
 0.001W  d 
 where Pr(d0) in units of watts

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 17


Free Space Propagation …
 For practical system using low-gain antennas in 1~2 GHz
region, d0 is typically chosen to be
 1m in indoor environments
 100 m or 1 km in outdoor environments

 Example: Find the far-field distance for a base station


antenna with maximum dimension of 1m and 900 MHz
operating frequency
 Solution: Given
 Largest dimension of antenna, D = 1m
 Operating frequency f = 900 MHz, =c/f = 1/3 = 0.33 m
 Far-field distance is obtained as
2(1) 2
df   6m
0.33

18
Free Space Path Loss – Example
 If a transmitter produces 50 watts of power, express the
transmit power in units of
a) dBm, and
b) dBW
 If 50 watts is applied to a unity gain antenna with a 900
MHz carrier frequency,
a) Find the received power in dBm at a free space distance of 100
m from the antenna.
b) What is Pr (10 km)?
 Assume unity gain for the receiver antenna

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 19


Free Space Path Loss – Solution

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 20


Power and Electric Field – Example 2
 For a BS, let Pt = 10 W, fc=900 MHz, Gt=2, Gr=1
 The MS is at a distance of 5 km
 What is the received power in dBm?

 Pt Gt Gr 2   10  2 1 (0.33) 2 
Pr (d ) 10 log 
 (4d ) 2 
  10 log 
 (4 ) 2  (5000) 2 

   

Pr (d  5000m)   92.6dBW  62.6dBm

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 21


Power and Electric Field – Example 3
 For a BS, let Pt = 500 mW, fc=900 MHz, Gt=2, Gr=1
 The MS is at a distance of 10 km
 What is the received power in dBm?

 Pt Gt Gr 2   0.5  2 1 (0.33) 2 


Pr (d )   10 log 
 (4d ) 2 
  10 log 
 (4 ) 2  (10000) 2 

   
Pr (d  10000m)  111.6dBW  81.6dBm

 Can the mobile work at this power level?


 It depends on the receiver sensitivity of the MS
 Sensitivity is the minimum required power level for a GSM phone
to pick up the signal and work
 Typical GSM mobile station sensitivity < -100 dBm

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 22


Overview
 Radio wave propagation
 Free space propagation
 Power and electric field
 Propagation mechanisms
 Empirical path-loss models
 Outdoor propagation models
 Indoor propagation models

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 23


Power and Electric Field
 Power flux density, Pd, is defined as the amount of power that
travels through a given area
 If a far-field concept and has unit of in watts/m2
 Assumes an ideal (point) radiator
 In free space
2
E
Pd  W / m2

 Where =120 = 377 is intrinsic
impedance of free space and |E| is the
radiating electric field
 Idea: An antenna “captures” some
of this power, depending on how
large the antenna is
 Called the effective antenna aperture,
Ae, with units m2

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 24


Power and Electric Field …
 Received power at distance d is given by
  
2 2
E
Pr (d )  Pd Ae  Ae  Pt Gt Gr  
  4d 
 This relates the electric field |E| to received power in watts
 The received power can also be written as
2
V 2 [Vant / 2]2 Vant
Pr (d )    Watts
Rant Rant 4 Rant
 Where V is the rms voltage
induced at the input of a receiver
and Rant is the resistance of the
matched receiver

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 25


Power and Electric Field – Example 1
 Assume a receiver is located 10 km from a 50 W
transmitter. The carrier frequency is 900 MHz, free space
propagation is assumed, Gt = 1, and Gr = 2. Find
a) The power at the receiver
b) The magnitude of the E-field at the receiver antenna
c) The rms voltage applied to the receiver input assuming that the
receiver antenna has a purely real impedance of 50  and is
matched to the receiver

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 26


Power and Electric Field – Solution

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 27


Overview
 Introduction
 Free space propagation
 Power and electric field
 Propagation mechanisms
 Reflection and ground reflection model
 Diffraction
 Scattering
 Empirical path-loss models
 Outdoor propagation models
 Indoor propagation models

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 28


Propagation Mechanisms
 In wireless com., multiple signals arrive at the receiver, but
with less power than indicated by the Friis equation
 The received power varies strongly (5-25 dB) even for small
changes in antenna position, center frequency, and time

 There is a large effect caused when the path length


increases by orders of magnitude
 This is due to reflection, diffraction, scattering, etc

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 29


Reflection
 Happens when EM wave impinges on an object which has
very large dimensions as compared to wavelength 
 E.g., the surface of the earth, building, walls, etc.

 When a radio wave propagating in one medium impinges


upon another medium having different electrical properties
 Electric field intensity of the reflected and transmitted
waves are related to the incident wave by Fresnel reflection
coefficient, 
  is a function of material properties, polarization, angle of
incidence, and frequency

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 30


Reflection …
 If the plane wave is incident on a perfect dielectric
 Part of the energy is transmitted into the secondary medium
 Part of the energy is reflected back into the first medium
 No loss of energy in absorption

 If the second medium is a perfect conductor


 All incident energy is reflected back into the first medium

 The electric waves can be represented as a sum of two


orthogonal polarization components
 E.g., vertical and horizontal, or left-hand and right-hand circular

 Incident and perpendicular planes


1. Incidence plane: Contains incident, reflected, & transmitted waves
2. Perpendicular plane: Normal to plane of incidence

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 31


Reflection from Dielectrics
 EM wave incident at an angle i with the plane of the
boundary between two dielectric media

Reflection Coefficients

Er  2 sin  t  1 sin  i
   (E-field in plane of incident)
Ei  2 sin  t  1 sin  i
Er  sin  i  1 sin  t
   2 (E-field normal to plane of incident)
Ei  2 sin  i  1 sin  t
Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 32
Reflection from Dielectrics …
 Snell’s Law: μ1ε1 sin(90  θi )  μ 2ε 2 sin(90  θ t )
 Used to determine θt
Er  Ei
 Reflected and transmitted field are: E  (1  ) E
t i

 Where  is either  or , depending on polarization

 Intrinsic impedance of the ith medium: i  i 


i

 I.e., ratio of electric to magnetic field for a uniform plane wave

 Parameters:  permittivity,  permeability, &  conductance


 The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
i   r

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 33


Overview
 Introduction
 Free Space propagation
 Power and Electric Field
 Propagation mechanisms
 Reflection and ground reflection model
 Diffraction
 Scattering
 Empirical path-loss models
 Outdoor propagation models
 Indoor propagation models

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 34


Ground Reflection (2-Ray) Model …
 Free space propagation model is inaccurate in practice
 LOS and reflection from the ground is also important

MS

Base Station

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 35


Ground Reflection Model …
 How the MS receives signal from the BS?
 Reasonably accurate model for
 Height > 50 m (i.e., tall towers)
 BS and MS are separated by certain distance (several kilometers)

 Considers two paths: Direct LOS & ground reflected


 In most mobile communication systems
 T-R separation distance is at most a few tens of kilometers
 The earth may be assumed to be flat

 Energy at the receiver is the vector sum of direct, ELOS,


and ground reflected, Eg components
 Vector sum => phase difference
 Important parameters: ht, hr, distance d
Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 36
Method of Image
 Using method of image, the path difference  is

2ht hr
  d "d '  (ht  hr )  d  (ht  hr )  d 
2 2 2 2

d
 Approximation results
from Taylors series and
valid when d >> ht +hr

 Phase d/c , and time


delay d are given by
2 c
  
 c
and
 
d  
c 2f c

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 37


Ground Reflection Model …
 From the power formula
 The received power falls off with distance raised to the 4th power or
 At a rate of 40 dB per decade
 This is much more rapid path loss than in free space
 Good news: d increases => interference decrease, however the
LOS cease to be dominant
 The received power is independent of frequency
 Heights ht and hr can be used to control the received
power as the gains are usually fixed
 The path loss expressed in dB is
PL(dB)  40 log d  (10 log Gt  10 log Gr  20 log ht  20 log hr )

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 38


Overview
 Introduction
 Free Space propagation
 Power and Electric Field
 Propagation mechanisms
 Reflection and ground reflection model
 Diffraction
 Scattering
 Empirical path-loss models
 Outdoor propagation models
 Indoor propagation models

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 39


Diffraction - Fresnel Zone Geometry
 Diffraction: occurs when radio path is obstructed (shadowed)
by a surface that has sharp irregularities (edges)
 Received power decreases rapidly as a receiver moves deeper into
an obstructed region
 However, diffracted field still exists and often has sufficient strength
to produce a useful signal

 Diffraction explains how radio signals travel without LOS in


urban environment as well as curved surface of the earth
 Diffraction can be explained by Huygen’s principle
 All points on a wavefront (including bending) can be considered as
point sources for the production of secondary waves
 At each point, the wave field is effectively re-radiating in all directions

 The re-radiation enable EM waves to “bend” around objects


Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 40
Knife-edge Diffraction
 Geometry when the TX and RX are not at the same height
and no LOS
 At the top, where diffraction is to occur, we have a sharp edge
 E.g., communication between microwave links or between BSs

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 41


Knife-edge Diffraction …
 Geometry where ht = hr an knife-edge obstructing the LOS

 Important parameters: d1, d2, ht, hr, and h


 d1, d2, distance along LOS path from TX or RX to obstruction
 h is screening height
 How much energy we get from a receiver having a knife-edge
geometry? Answered by Fresnel-Kirchoff parameter
Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 42
Diffraction Gain
 The Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction parameter is given by
2(d1  d 2 )
 h
d1d 2
 Is unitless; depends on geometry and frequency
 The diffraction gain due to presence of knife-edge, as
compared to free-space E-field, is given by
 Gd(dB) = 0   -1
 Gd(dB) = 20log(0.5 - 0.62) -1    0
 Gd(dB) = 20log(0.5exp(-0.95)) 01
 Gd(dB) = 20log(0.4-(0.1184-(0.38-0.1)2) 1    2.4
 Gd(dB) = 20log(0.225/) 2.4  

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 43


Multiple Knife- edge Diffraction
 Building’s construction of un equal knife edge
 Multiple knife-edge diffraction model can be expressed
using a single equivalent knife-edge model
 Can be extended to more than two

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 44


Overview
 Introduction
 Free Space propagation
 Power and Electric Field
 Propagation mechanisms
 Reflection and ground reflection model
 Diffraction
 Scattering
 Empirical path-loss models
 Outdoor propagation models
 Indoor propagation models

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 45


Scattering
 Received signal in a mobile radio environment is often
greater than predicted by reflection and diffraction models
 Because when a radio wave impinges on a rough surface, the
reflected energy is spread out (diffused) in all directions due to
scattering

 Scattering occurs when dimensions of objects in the


medium are smaller or comparable to  and when number
of obstacles per unit volume is large, e.g., millimeter waves
 Small objects, rough surfaces, foliage, street signs, lamp posts

 Scattering causes transmitted energy to be radiated in


many directions

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 46


Scattering …
 When is a surface considered rough?
 Surface protuberance for a given angle of incidence

hc 
8 sin  i
 where i is, again, the angle of incidence

 A surface is considered rough if its protuberance h is


greater then hc
 Scattering has two important effects
1. Rough surface scattering reduces power in the reflected wave

2. Scattering causes additional multipath to be received in directions


other than the specular direction (very useful phenomena)

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 47


Scattering …
 If the surface is rough, then the reflected wave has a
modified reflection coefficient
rough   S 

 Where  is flat surface reflection coefficient


 The scattering loss factor S is given as
  h sin  i  2 
 S  exp  8  
    

 Where h is the standard deviation of the surface height about the


mean surface height

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 48


Summary: Reflection, Scattering and Diffraction
 At the receiver vector addition of direct, Building
reflected, and diffracted signals occurs

Reflected Signal
Direct Signal

ht
Diffracted
Signal hr

Transmitter

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 49


Summary: Reflection, Scattering and Diffraction
 As a MS moves through a coverage area, these 3
mechanisms have an impact on the instantaneous
received signal strength
 If a mobile has a clear LOS path to the BS, then diffraction
and scattering will not dominate the propagation
 If a mobile is at a street level without LOS, then diffraction
and scattering will probably dominate the propagation

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 50


Overview
 Introduction
 Free Space propagation
 Power and Electric Field
 Propagation mechanisms
 Empirical path-loss models
 Log-distance path loss
 Log-normal shadowing
 Coverage area
 Outdoor propagation models
 Indoor propagation models

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 51


Path Loss Models
 Propagation models are in general combination of
analytical & empirical models
 Analytical: model the propagation mechanisms
mathematically and derive equations for path loss
 Empirical: collect measurement, fit curves
 Advantage: Implicitly take all propagation factors into account, both
known and unknown
 Drawback: Environmental and frequency dependent, hence
additional measurements are required to validate the model

 Empirical models are designed to better fit measured data


 We will see
 Log-distance path loss
 Log-normal shadowing
Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 52
Overview
 Introduction
 Free Space propagation
 Power and Electric Field
 Propagation mechanisms
 Empirical path-loss models
 Log-distance path loss
 Log-normal shadowing
 Coverage area
 Outdoor propagation models
 Indoor propagation models

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 53


Log-normal Shadowing
 For two points having same separation d, the surrounding
environment may vary drastically
 E.g., obstructed vs. line-of-sight, scattering, reflections, etc.

 From measurement, at a specific T-R separation, the path


loss is random and distributed log-normally (normal in dB)
d
PL(d )[ dB]  PL(d )    PL(d 0 )  10n log    
 d0 
 Where  is a zero-mean Gaussian distributed random variable (in
dB) with standard deviation  (also in dB)

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 54


Log-normal Shadowing
 Determination of n and 
 In practice the values of n and  are computed from
measured data using linear regression
 The difference between the measured data and
estimated path losses are minimized in a mean square
error sense

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 55


Overview
 Introduction
 Free Space propagation
 Power and Electric Field
 Propagation mechanisms
 Empirical path-loss models
 Outdoor propagation models
 Indoor propagation models

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 56


Outdoor Propagation Models
 Path-loss estimation also requires terrain profile of a
particular area
 The terrain profile may vary from a simple curved earth profile to a
highly mountainous profile

 Several models exist to predict path loss over irregular


terrain, e.g., Okumura-Hata model
 The methods vary widely in their approach, complexity, and
accuracy
 Most of these models are based on a systematic interpretation of
measurement data obtained in the service area

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 57


Okumura-Hata Models
 Valid for signal prediction in urban area
 Applicable for 150 MHz - 1920 MHz; distance of 1km to
100 km; and BS antenna height from 30m to 1km.
 The 50th percentile (median) value of the propagation loss,
L50 in dB is give by
L50 (dB)  LF ( f , d )  Amu ( f , d )  G(hte )  G(hre )  GAREA

 Where all terms are in dB and


 LF is the free space propagation loss
 Amu is the median attenuation relative to free space
 G(hte) and G(hre): BS and MS antennas height gain factor
 GAREA is the gain due to the type of environment (open, quasi
open, or suburban)

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Indoor Propagation Models
 Used in personal communication systems (PCS)
 Differs from indoor model in two aspects
 The distances covered are much smaller
 The variability of the environment is greater for much smaller T-R
separation distance

 Propagation characteristics within a building is influenced


by specific features such as
 Layout of the building
 Construction materials
 Building types

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 59