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Chapter 3 Large Sclae Class

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Goal of the Chapter

Radio channels are random and difficult to analyze

Interference, path loss, fading

Reasons why wireless signals are hard to send and receive in

wireless channel

Predict average received signal strength (and rate of received

signal strength fluctuations in next Chapter)

Overview

Radio wave propagation

Free space propagation

Power and electric field

Propagation mechanisms

Empirical path-loss models

Outdoor propagation

Indoor propagation

Radio Wave Propagation

The radio channel places a fundamental limitation on the

performance of wireless communication systems

The path between transmitter and receiver is either

Simple line-of-sight or

Severely obstructed by buildings, mountains, and foliage

radio channels are extremely random and time varying

Even the speed of motion impacts how rapidly the signal level

fades as a mobile terminal moves in space

done in a statistical fashion, based on measurements

Radio Wave Propagation …

Electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation mechanisms can

generally be attributed to reflection, diffraction, and

scattering

E.g., in urban areas there is no direct line-of-sight path between

transmitter and receiver and high rise buildings cause sever

diffraction loss

travel along different paths of varying lengths

The interaction between those waves causes multipath fading at a

specific location

the transmitter and receiver increases

Radio Wave Propagation …

Propagation models

Large-scale path loss model

Small-scale fading model

Large-Scale Path Loss Model

Predicts the average received signal strength at a given

distance from the transmitter

Useful in estimating the coverage area of an antenna

Characterize signal strength over large transmitter-receiver

(T-R) separation distance

Several hundreds or thousands of meters

averaging signal measurements over a measurement track

of 5λ to 40λ

For cellular system in 1~2 GHz, this corresponds to 1~10m

Small-Scale Fading Model

Focus on signal strength variation in close spatial proximity

to a particular location

Characterize the rapid fluctuations of the received signal

strength over

Very short travel distances (a few wavelengths) or

Short time durations (in the order of seconds)

receiver is moved by fraction of a wavelength

This is because the received signal is a sum of many contributions

(the phases are random) coming from different directions

Example: Small and Large-Scale Fading

Signal variations in an indoor radio communication system

Signal fades rapidly as the receiver moves

By more than 20 dBm

However, the

average signal

decays much more

slowly with distance

(smoothed line)

Depends on terrain

and obstructions

Small- and Large-Scale Fading …

This Chapter covers large-scale propagation and presents

a number of common methods used to predict received

power in mobile comm. sys.

methods to measure and model multi-path in the mobile

radio environment

Overview

Radio wave propagation

Free space propagation

Power and electric field

Propagation mechanisms

Empirical path-loss models

Outdoor propagation

Indoor propagation

Free Space Propagation Model

Predicts received signal strength when the transmitter and

receiver have a clear, unobstructed line-of- sight path

between them

E.g., Satellite communication and microwave line-of-sight radio links

Free space model predicts the received power decay as a function of

the T-R separation distance raised to some power (i.e., a power law

function)

is given by the Friis free space equation

2

1

Pr ( d ) Pt Gt Gr

4d

L

(3.1)

Where Pt: transmitted power; Pr: received power; Gt, Gr: antenna

gains; L: system loss factor; : wavelength in meters

Free Space Propagation …

System loss factor L is not related to propagation

Results from line attenuation, filter losses, antenna losses

L 1 (L=1 indicates no loss in the system)

4Ae

G (3.2)

2

antenna

The wavelength is related to the carrier frequency

c 2c

(3.3)

f c

where f: the carrier frequency in Hertz

c: the carrier frequency in radians per second

c: the speed of light in meters/sec

Higher frequency => higher gain for the same size antenna

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 13

Free Space Propagation …

Equation (3.1) implies that the received power decays with

distance at a rate of 20dB/decade or square of T-R

separation

Isotropic radiator

An ideal antenna which radiates power with unit gain uniformly in

all direction

Represents the maximum radiated power available from a

transmitter in the direction of maximum antenna gain, as compared

to an isotropic radiator

Free Space Propagation …

Path loss: Represents signal attenuation as a positive

quantity measured in dB

Is defined as the difference between the effective

transmitted and received power

PL(dB) 10 log 10 log 2 (3.4)

Pr ( 4 ) 2

d

which is valid only in the far-field (or Fraunhoffer region) of

transmitting antenna region

2D 2

That is, the far-field distance df

where D is the largest physical linear dimension of antenna

Free Space Propagation …

Equation (3.1) does not hold for d=0

Hence, large-scale propagation models use a close-in

distance, d0, as a known received power reference point

The received power Pr(d) at any distance d>d0 may be

related to Pr(d0)

The value Pr(d0) may be

Predicted from Equation (3.1) or

Measured in the radio environment by taking the average received

power at many points located at d0 from the transmitter

It lies in the far-field region, that is, d0 df

It is smaller than any practical distance used in the mobile

communication system

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 16

Free Space Propagation …

At a distance greater than d0

2

d0 (3.5)

Pr (d ) Pr (d 0 ) d d0 d f

d

Pr changes by many orders of magnitude over a typical

coverage area of several kilometers

Often measured in dBm or dBW

Pr (d 0 ) d0 (3.6)

Pr (d ) dBm 10 log 20 log d d0 d f

0.001W d

where Pr(d0) in units of watts

Free Space Propagation …

For practical system using low-gain antennas in 1~2 GHz

region, d0 is typically chosen to be

1m in indoor environments

100 m or 1 km in outdoor environments

antenna with maximum dimension of 1m and 900 MHz

operating frequency

Solution: Given

Largest dimension of antenna, D = 1m

Operating frequency f = 900 MHz, =c/f = 1/3 = 0.33 m

Far-field distance is obtained as

2(1) 2

df 6m

0.33

18

Free Space Path Loss – Example

If a transmitter produces 50 watts of power, express the

transmit power in units of

a) dBm, and

b) dBW

If 50 watts is applied to a unity gain antenna with a 900

MHz carrier frequency,

a) Find the received power in dBm at a free space distance of 100

m from the antenna.

b) What is Pr (10 km)?

Assume unity gain for the receiver antenna

Free Space Path Loss – Solution

Power and Electric Field – Example 2

For a BS, let Pt = 10 W, fc=900 MHz, Gt=2, Gr=1

The MS is at a distance of 5 km

What is the received power in dBm?

Pt Gt Gr 2 10 2 1 (0.33) 2

Pr (d ) 10 log

(4d ) 2

10 log

(4 ) 2 (5000) 2

Power and Electric Field – Example 3

For a BS, let Pt = 500 mW, fc=900 MHz, Gt=2, Gr=1

The MS is at a distance of 10 km

What is the received power in dBm?

Pr (d ) 10 log

(4d ) 2

10 log

(4 ) 2 (10000) 2

Pr (d 10000m) 111.6dBW 81.6dBm

It depends on the receiver sensitivity of the MS

Sensitivity is the minimum required power level for a GSM phone

to pick up the signal and work

Typical GSM mobile station sensitivity < -100 dBm

Overview

Radio wave propagation

Free space propagation

Power and electric field

Propagation mechanisms

Empirical path-loss models

Outdoor propagation models

Indoor propagation models

Power and Electric Field

Power flux density, Pd, is defined as the amount of power that

travels through a given area

If a far-field concept and has unit of in watts/m2

Assumes an ideal (point) radiator

In free space

2

E

Pd W / m2

Where =120 = 377 is intrinsic

impedance of free space and |E| is the

radiating electric field

Idea: An antenna “captures” some

of this power, depending on how

large the antenna is

Called the effective antenna aperture,

Ae, with units m2

Power and Electric Field …

Received power at distance d is given by

2 2

E

Pr (d ) Pd Ae Ae Pt Gt Gr

4d

This relates the electric field |E| to received power in watts

The received power can also be written as

2

V 2 [Vant / 2]2 Vant

Pr (d ) Watts

Rant Rant 4 Rant

Where V is the rms voltage

induced at the input of a receiver

and Rant is the resistance of the

matched receiver

Power and Electric Field – Example 1

Assume a receiver is located 10 km from a 50 W

transmitter. The carrier frequency is 900 MHz, free space

propagation is assumed, Gt = 1, and Gr = 2. Find

a) The power at the receiver

b) The magnitude of the E-field at the receiver antenna

c) The rms voltage applied to the receiver input assuming that the

receiver antenna has a purely real impedance of 50 and is

matched to the receiver

Power and Electric Field – Solution

Overview

Introduction

Free space propagation

Power and electric field

Propagation mechanisms

Reflection and ground reflection model

Diffraction

Scattering

Empirical path-loss models

Outdoor propagation models

Indoor propagation models

Propagation Mechanisms

In wireless com., multiple signals arrive at the receiver, but

with less power than indicated by the Friis equation

The received power varies strongly (5-25 dB) even for small

changes in antenna position, center frequency, and time

increases by orders of magnitude

This is due to reflection, diffraction, scattering, etc

Reflection

Happens when EM wave impinges on an object which has

very large dimensions as compared to wavelength

E.g., the surface of the earth, building, walls, etc.

upon another medium having different electrical properties

Electric field intensity of the reflected and transmitted

waves are related to the incident wave by Fresnel reflection

coefficient,

is a function of material properties, polarization, angle of

incidence, and frequency

Reflection …

If the plane wave is incident on a perfect dielectric

Part of the energy is transmitted into the secondary medium

Part of the energy is reflected back into the first medium

No loss of energy in absorption

All incident energy is reflected back into the first medium

orthogonal polarization components

E.g., vertical and horizontal, or left-hand and right-hand circular

1. Incidence plane: Contains incident, reflected, & transmitted waves

2. Perpendicular plane: Normal to plane of incidence

Reflection from Dielectrics

EM wave incident at an angle i with the plane of the

boundary between two dielectric media

Reflection Coefficients

Er 2 sin t 1 sin i

(E-field in plane of incident)

Ei 2 sin t 1 sin i

Er sin i 1 sin t

2 (E-field normal to plane of incident)

Ei 2 sin i 1 sin t

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 32

Reflection from Dielectrics …

Snell’s Law: μ1ε1 sin(90 θi ) μ 2ε 2 sin(90 θ t )

Used to determine θt

Er Ei

Reflected and transmitted field are: E (1 ) E

t i

i

The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection

i r

Overview

Introduction

Free Space propagation

Power and Electric Field

Propagation mechanisms

Reflection and ground reflection model

Diffraction

Scattering

Empirical path-loss models

Outdoor propagation models

Indoor propagation models

Ground Reflection (2-Ray) Model …

Free space propagation model is inaccurate in practice

LOS and reflection from the ground is also important

MS

Base Station

Ground Reflection Model …

How the MS receives signal from the BS?

Reasonably accurate model for

Height > 50 m (i.e., tall towers)

BS and MS are separated by certain distance (several kilometers)

In most mobile communication systems

T-R separation distance is at most a few tens of kilometers

The earth may be assumed to be flat

and ground reflected, Eg components

Vector sum => phase difference

Important parameters: ht, hr, distance d

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 36

Method of Image

Using method of image, the path difference is

2ht hr

d "d ' (ht hr ) d (ht hr ) d

2 2 2 2

d

Approximation results

from Taylors series and

valid when d >> ht +hr

delay d are given by

2 c

c

and

d

c 2f c

Ground Reflection Model …

From the power formula

The received power falls off with distance raised to the 4th power or

At a rate of 40 dB per decade

This is much more rapid path loss than in free space

Good news: d increases => interference decrease, however the

LOS cease to be dominant

The received power is independent of frequency

Heights ht and hr can be used to control the received

power as the gains are usually fixed

The path loss expressed in dB is

PL(dB) 40 log d (10 log Gt 10 log Gr 20 log ht 20 log hr )

Overview

Introduction

Free Space propagation

Power and Electric Field

Propagation mechanisms

Reflection and ground reflection model

Diffraction

Scattering

Empirical path-loss models

Outdoor propagation models

Indoor propagation models

Diffraction - Fresnel Zone Geometry

Diffraction: occurs when radio path is obstructed (shadowed)

by a surface that has sharp irregularities (edges)

Received power decreases rapidly as a receiver moves deeper into

an obstructed region

However, diffracted field still exists and often has sufficient strength

to produce a useful signal

urban environment as well as curved surface of the earth

Diffraction can be explained by Huygen’s principle

All points on a wavefront (including bending) can be considered as

point sources for the production of secondary waves

At each point, the wave field is effectively re-radiating in all directions

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 40

Knife-edge Diffraction

Geometry when the TX and RX are not at the same height

and no LOS

At the top, where diffraction is to occur, we have a sharp edge

E.g., communication between microwave links or between BSs

Knife-edge Diffraction …

Geometry where ht = hr an knife-edge obstructing the LOS

d1, d2, distance along LOS path from TX or RX to obstruction

h is screening height

How much energy we get from a receiver having a knife-edge

geometry? Answered by Fresnel-Kirchoff parameter

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 42

Diffraction Gain

The Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction parameter is given by

2(d1 d 2 )

h

d1d 2

Is unitless; depends on geometry and frequency

The diffraction gain due to presence of knife-edge, as

compared to free-space E-field, is given by

Gd(dB) = 0 -1

Gd(dB) = 20log(0.5 - 0.62) -1 0

Gd(dB) = 20log(0.5exp(-0.95)) 01

Gd(dB) = 20log(0.4-(0.1184-(0.38-0.1)2) 1 2.4

Gd(dB) = 20log(0.225/) 2.4

Multiple Knife- edge Diffraction

Building’s construction of un equal knife edge

Multiple knife-edge diffraction model can be expressed

using a single equivalent knife-edge model

Can be extended to more than two

Overview

Introduction

Free Space propagation

Power and Electric Field

Propagation mechanisms

Reflection and ground reflection model

Diffraction

Scattering

Empirical path-loss models

Outdoor propagation models

Indoor propagation models

Scattering

Received signal in a mobile radio environment is often

greater than predicted by reflection and diffraction models

Because when a radio wave impinges on a rough surface, the

reflected energy is spread out (diffused) in all directions due to

scattering

medium are smaller or comparable to and when number

of obstacles per unit volume is large, e.g., millimeter waves

Small objects, rough surfaces, foliage, street signs, lamp posts

many directions

Scattering …

When is a surface considered rough?

Surface protuberance for a given angle of incidence

hc

8 sin i

where i is, again, the angle of incidence

greater then hc

Scattering has two important effects

1. Rough surface scattering reduces power in the reflected wave

other than the specular direction (very useful phenomena)

Scattering …

If the surface is rough, then the reflected wave has a

modified reflection coefficient

rough S

The scattering loss factor S is given as

h sin i 2

S exp 8

mean surface height

Summary: Reflection, Scattering and Diffraction

At the receiver vector addition of direct, Building

reflected, and diffracted signals occurs

Reflected Signal

Direct Signal

ht

Diffracted

Signal hr

Transmitter

Summary: Reflection, Scattering and Diffraction

As a MS moves through a coverage area, these 3

mechanisms have an impact on the instantaneous

received signal strength

If a mobile has a clear LOS path to the BS, then diffraction

and scattering will not dominate the propagation

If a mobile is at a street level without LOS, then diffraction

and scattering will probably dominate the propagation

Overview

Introduction

Free Space propagation

Power and Electric Field

Propagation mechanisms

Empirical path-loss models

Log-distance path loss

Log-normal shadowing

Coverage area

Outdoor propagation models

Indoor propagation models

Path Loss Models

Propagation models are in general combination of

analytical & empirical models

Analytical: model the propagation mechanisms

mathematically and derive equations for path loss

Empirical: collect measurement, fit curves

Advantage: Implicitly take all propagation factors into account, both

known and unknown

Drawback: Environmental and frequency dependent, hence

additional measurements are required to validate the model

We will see

Log-distance path loss

Log-normal shadowing

Wireless Communications - Ch. 3 – Large-Scale Path Loss 52

Overview

Introduction

Free Space propagation

Power and Electric Field

Propagation mechanisms

Empirical path-loss models

Log-distance path loss

Log-normal shadowing

Coverage area

Outdoor propagation models

Indoor propagation models

Log-normal Shadowing

For two points having same separation d, the surrounding

environment may vary drastically

E.g., obstructed vs. line-of-sight, scattering, reflections, etc.

loss is random and distributed log-normally (normal in dB)

d

PL(d )[ dB] PL(d ) PL(d 0 ) 10n log

d0

Where is a zero-mean Gaussian distributed random variable (in

dB) with standard deviation (also in dB)

Log-normal Shadowing

Determination of n and

In practice the values of n and are computed from

measured data using linear regression

The difference between the measured data and

estimated path losses are minimized in a mean square

error sense

Overview

Introduction

Free Space propagation

Power and Electric Field

Propagation mechanisms

Empirical path-loss models

Outdoor propagation models

Indoor propagation models

Outdoor Propagation Models

Path-loss estimation also requires terrain profile of a

particular area

The terrain profile may vary from a simple curved earth profile to a

highly mountainous profile

terrain, e.g., Okumura-Hata model

The methods vary widely in their approach, complexity, and

accuracy

Most of these models are based on a systematic interpretation of

measurement data obtained in the service area

Okumura-Hata Models

Valid for signal prediction in urban area

Applicable for 150 MHz - 1920 MHz; distance of 1km to

100 km; and BS antenna height from 30m to 1km.

The 50th percentile (median) value of the propagation loss,

L50 in dB is give by

L50 (dB) LF ( f , d ) Amu ( f , d ) G(hte ) G(hre ) GAREA

LF is the free space propagation loss

Amu is the median attenuation relative to free space

G(hte) and G(hre): BS and MS antennas height gain factor

GAREA is the gain due to the type of environment (open, quasi

open, or suburban)

Indoor Propagation Models

Used in personal communication systems (PCS)

Differs from indoor model in two aspects

The distances covered are much smaller

The variability of the environment is greater for much smaller T-R

separation distance

by specific features such as

Layout of the building

Construction materials

Building types

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