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GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC, PUNE

DEPT. OF E&TC ENGINEERING


COURSE- MINI PROJECT

A PROJECT ON FM
TRANSMITTER
GUIDED BY – MS.ANUSHRI GARUD
SUBMITTED BY- 1) PRATIK SABALE(1703042)
2) VISHAL PANCHAL(1703035)
3) ROHIT MORE (1703031)
4) PRASHANT MAHAJAN(1703039)

Revised December 30, 2010 1


INTRODUCTION
• A Personal FM transmitter is a low-power FM radio transmitter that broadcasts a signal from
a portable audio device (such as an MP3 player) to a standard FM radio.

• Most of these transmitters plug into the device's headphone jack and then broadcast the
signal over an Fm broadcast band frequency, so that it can be picked up by any nearby radio.

• This allows portable audio devices to make use of the louder or better sound quality of a
home audio system or car stereo without requiring a wired connection. They are often used
in cars but may also be in fixed locations such as broadcasting from a computer sound
card throughout a building.
• Being low-powered, most transmitters typically have a short range of 100–300 feet (30–100
metres), depending on the quality of the receiver, obstructions and elevation. Typically they
broadcast on any FM frequency from 87.5 to 108.0 MHz in most of the world, 76.0 - 95.0
MHz for Japan, 65.0 - 74.2 MHz for Russia (or 88.1 to 107.9 MHz in the US and Canada).

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HISTORY
• The first primitive radio transmitters (called spark gap transmitters) were built by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in
1887 during his pioneering investigations of radio waves. These generated radio waves by a high voltage spark between
two conductors. Beginning in 1895, Guglielmo Marconi developed the first practical radio communication systems using
these transmitters. Spark transmitters couldn't transmit audio (sound) and instead transmitted information
by radiotelegraphy, the operator tapped on a telegraph key which turned the transmitter on and off to produce pulses
of radio waves spelling out text messages in Morse code. These spark-gap transmitters were used during the first
three decades of radio (1887-1917), called the wireless telegraphy or "spark" era. Because they generated damped
waves, spark transmitters were electrically "noisy". Their energy was spread over a broad band of frequencies,
creating radio noise which interfered with other transmitters. Damped wave emissions were banned by international
law in 1934.
• Two short-lived competing transmitter technologies came into use after the turn of the century, which were the
first continuous wavetransmitters: the arc converter (Poulsen arc) in 1904 and the Alexanderson alternator around
1910, which were used into the 1920s.

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HISTORY
• The invention of the transistor allowed the development in the 1960s of small portable transmitters such as wireless
microphones, garage door openers and walkie-talkies. The development of the integrated circuit (IC) in the 1970s made
possible the current proliferation of wireless devices, such as cell phones and laptops, in which integrated digital
transmitters and receivers in wireless modems operate automatically, in the background, to exchange data
with wireless networks.
• The need to conserve bandwidth in the increasingly congested radio spectrum is driving the development of new types
of transmitters such as spread spectrum, trunked radio systems and cognitive radio. A related trend has been an
ongoing transition from analog to digital radio transmission methods. Digital modulation can have greater spectral
efficiencythan analog modulation; that is it can often transmit more information (data rate) in a given bandwidth than
analog, using data compression algorithms. Other advantages of digital transmission are increased noise immunity, and
greater flexibility and processing power of digital signal processing integrated circuits.

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USES
• Personal FM transmitters are commonly used as a workaround for playing
portable audio devices on car radios that don't have an Auxiliary "AUX"
input jack or bluetooth audio connectivity.
• They are also used to broadcast a stationary audio source, like a computer
or a television, around a home. They can also be used for low power
boardcasting and pirate radio but only to a very limited audience in near
proximity. They can also be used as a "talking sign" in real estates sales or
similar.

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FM Transmitter Project
• Electromagnetic radiation: The motion of
packets of energy called photons
• Speed = Wavelength × Frequency
• Speed of light  300 million meters/second
Wavelength is measured in meters
Frequency is measured in Hertz (sec–1)

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FM Transmitter Project
Examples:
• 100.7 FM, Wavelength = 3×108 / 100.7×106 =
2.98 meters
• 1100 AM, Wavelength = 3×108 / 1100×103 =
273 meters

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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WORKING
• The formation of the oscillating tank circuit can be done through the transistor of 2N3904 by using the inductor and
variable capacitor. The transistor used in this circuit is an NPN transistor used for general purpose amplification .

• If the current is passed at the inductor L1 and variable capacitor then the tank circuit will oscillate at the resonant
carrier frequency of the FM modulation. The negative feedback will be the capacitor C2 to the oscillating tank circuit.

• To generate the radio frequency carrier waves the FM transmitter circuit requires an oscillator. The tank circuit is
derived from the LC circuit to store the energy for oscillations. The input audio signal from the mic penetrated to the
base of the transistor, which modulates the LC tank ckt carrier frequency in FM format.

• The variable capacitor is used to change the resonant frequency for fine modification to the FM frequency band. The
modulated signal from the antenna is radiated as radio waves at the FM frequency band and the antenna is nothing but
copper wire of 20cm long and 24 gauge. In this circuit the length of the antenna should be significant and here you can
use the 25-27 inches long copper wire of the antenna.

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Solderless Breadboards
The term breadboard originated in the early
days of radio, when many experimenters
actually built circuits on the wooden boards
used in their mother’s kitchen for rolling out
bread dough.

Solderless breadboards: The best thing to


come along since sliced bread!

A ham radio transmitter circa 1930

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Perfbord or Protoboard

Components are soldered to the board, with connections made


using a combination of short pieces of wire and the copper traces
already present on some versions of these boards.

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Soldering
Soldering: Fastening metal objects using molten metal (solder)
as the glue.

Three requirements:
1. Low melting point metal (wire solder)
2. Heat source (soldering iron)
3. Flux (to prevent surfaces from oxidizing)

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Types of Solder
Tin-Lead solders
60% Tin, 40% Lead - solid at 361° F, liquid at 374° F
63% Tin, 37% Lead - eutectic point is 361° F

Silver-bearing Solder
62% Tin, 36% Lead, 2% Silver - solid at 354 ° F,
liquid at 372 F

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Soldering Irons
Constant wattage
Iron is continuously “ON” and eventually reaches
equilibrium temperature
20 to 25 watt iron sufficient for circuit board
assembly

Constant temperature
Tip incorporates a thermostatic element to
maintain desired tip temperature
Weller® 30 watt iron
650 – 750° F appropriate for circuit board
assembly

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Soldering a Component
Insert the component’s leads through
the holes in the circuit board. The body
should lie flat against the board without
having to force it down.

Turn the board over and


gently bend the component
leads outward to hold the
component in place

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Soldering a Component
QT Movie Clip Clean the iron tip by wiping on a damp sponge. Tin
the tip by applying solder, then wipe again.

Apply the iron in contact with both the circuit


board pad and the component lead. Apply
solder to the joint, not to the iron, and allow
the heated joint to melt the solder QT Movie Clip

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Soldering a Component
Use a pair of flush-cutting wire cutters to cut off the excess lead
length as close to the board as possible. Hold the lead so will not
fly away when cut, a possible occasion for eye injury.
!! WEAR SAFETY GLASSES !!

Inspect the soldered and trimmed


lead. It should be uniform and
shiny, with no cracks, gaps, or
graininess.

Good soldering Bad soldering

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ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES
• Advantages of the FM Transmitters :

• 1)The FM transmitters are easy to use and the price is low.


• 2)The efficiency of the transmitter is very high.
• 3)It has a large operating range.
• 4)This transmitter will reject the noise signal from an amplitude variation.

• Disadvantages of the FM Transmitter:


• 1)In the FM transmitter the huge wider channel is required.
• 2)The FM transmitter and receiver will tend to be more complex.
• 3)Due to some interference there is poor quality in the received signals.

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COMPONENTS AND
SPECIFICATIONS
• CERAMIC CAPACITORS : 1nF*3
• RESISTORS : 22K ,39K, 47K, 100R
• TRANSISTOR : 2N3904
• TRIMMER CAPACITORS : 22PF*2
• ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR : 47UF
• BATTERY : 9V
• AUDIO JACK PIN
• ZERO PCB
• ANTENNA

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PROJECT

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APPLICATIONS OF FM
TRANSMITTER
• Application of FM Transmitter :
• The FM transmitters are used in the homes like sound systems in halls to fill the
sound with the audio source.
• These are also used in the universities, fitness centers, shopping complex
• It can be used in day to day if we want to play a song from mobile gallery into
car sound system so it can be transmitted throgh FM without implementing a
wired connection.

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FUTURE MODIFICATIONS
• Enter Pocket FM , a portable FM transmitter the size of a shoebox that starts working as soon as
it’s connected to a small antenna, a power source, and an audio signal. Pocket FM resembles a
radio receiver more than a transmitter, and a single device can air radio programs over a
radius of about six kilometers. At its core is Raspbeery Pi, an affordable mini computer that can
easily be further developed and modified with different features for different scenarios.

• Pocket FM was developed by the Berlin-based nonprofit media in cooperation and transition in
collaboration with design firm IXDS. MiCT, which focuses on media development in crisis regions
and doesn’t usually create hardware, had been working to set up an independent Syrian radio
network known as the Syrian radio network , or Syrnet, with support from the German federal
foreign office . The network combines programming from stations within and outside the
country and circulates local reporting from those stations more widely.

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CONCLUSION
• The audio signal can practically transmitted using
frequency modulation by a simple phenomenon of
resonance matching.
• The transmitting range depends upon the power supplied to
the circuit and thereby the used components.

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REFERENCES
1) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FM_transmitter_(personal_device)
2) https://www.google.com/search?q=fm+transmitter+block+diagram&oq=FM+
&aqs=chrome.0.69i59l4j69i57j0.2900j0j8&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
3) https://www.google.com/search?hl=en-
IN&authuser=0&biw=1499&bih=744&ei=ghOWXK-FF-O1mgf_va-
ADw&q=fm+transmitter+working+explanation&oq=fm+transmitter+working)
4) http://www.niemanlab.org/2015/09/this-portable-fm-transmitter-brings-
information-to-people-in-crisis/

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