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The Cell as the Fundamental

Unit of Life: The Structure


and Function of Cellular
Organelles
• The cell is the smallest unit of
life.
• All organisms are composed one
or more cells.
• New cells arise from previously
existing cells.
Basic Cell Structure
Each cell has four common components:
1. Plasma membrane
2. Region containing DNA
3. Cytoplasm
4. Biochemical molecules & biochemical
pathways
Cells
Two fundamental types:
Prokaryotic
No Nucleus
No organelles
Small 100nm-5um
Eukaryotic
True Nucleus
Membrane bound
organelles
10-100um
Some are larger
Classification

Five kingdom system:


Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia

Six kingdom system:


Eu- Archae- Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia
bacteria bacteria

Three domain system:


Eu- Archae- E U K A R Y A
bacteria bacteria

Eight kingdom system:


Chromista
Archezoa

Protista

Eu- Archae- Plantae Fungi Animalia


bacteria bacteria
Three Lineages of Life:
Kingdom Domain Bacteria
Eubacteria
Eu- Archae- Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia
bacteria bacteria

Prokaryotes:
• No true nucleus
• No membrane-bound organelles
Cell Wall composed of peptidoglycan
Reproduce asexually by budding and fission
Very small (1 - 10 µm)
Kingdom Archaebacteria
Eu- Archae- Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia
bacteria bacteria

Eukaria
Prokaryotes:
No true nucleus
No membrane-bound organelles like
mitochondria or chloroplasts
NO peptidoglycan in cell wall
Reproduce asexually by budding and fission
Very small (1 - 10 µm)
“Extreme” environments (high temperatures)
Prokaryotic
Cells
Eukaryotes
Eu- Archae- Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia
bacteria bacteria

Eukaryotes:
True nucleus
Membrane-bound organelles
Cell size generally 10 - 100 µm
At least 4 lineages:
Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
Eukaryotic Cells

Typical Animal
Cell
The Cytoplasm
Plasma Membrane
Fluid mosaic model:
Working model of the membrane Protein
molecules bobbing in phospholipid sea Proteins
determine membrane’s specific functions
Structure of the Cell Membrane

Phospholipids
Most abundant lipid
Polar/hydrophilic head(attracted to water)
Pair of nonpolar/hydrophobic tails(repelled by water)
Hydrophilic
head

Hydrophobic
tails
Phospholipid bilayer:
Polar heads, outside & inside
Nonpolar tails in the interior
Cell Membranes
Rough and
Smooth ER
Golgi Apparatus
Receives substances from ER, refines and
packages them
Lysosome Function
Cytoskeleton
Cillia & Flagella- 9x2 arrangement

0.1 micrometer
Flagellum
Flagellar Movement
Ciliated Epithelium
Ciliary Movement
Ameboid Movement

Ex. WBC
Typical Plant Cell
Typical Plant
Cell
Cell Walls
Chloroplasts
INQUIRY
1. Which kingdom do bacteria belong?
2. What is the difference between prokaryotic and
eukaryotic?
3. Compare a plant and animal cell.
4. What is the function of:
• Mitochondria
• Nucleus
• Golgi apparatus
• Lysozome
• Ribosomes
• Smooth and rough ER

Cellular Visions: The inner life of a cell (video)


http://www.studiodaily.com/main/searchlist/6850.html