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Limitations of machining hard materials on conventional

Drilling machines
Tools should have a physical vapor deposition coating, which acts as a barrier between the carbide and the
material being cut.

Drilling is a mainstream, economical choice for hole creation in a work piece, and manufacturers have many
tool options to choose from.

High-speed steel (HSS), solid-carbide, indexable, CBN, diamond-tipped, Interchangeable-head drills all have
their place in manufacturing. Choosing toe correct tool for the job depend too several factors, but work
piece material typically is the driver.

However, when the material being machined exceeds 50 HRC, heat—the common enemy in all chip making
operations—becomes even more oppressive.

“Getting good tool life is the main challenge when cutting hard material because of the amount of heat
being generated,”

When the heat stays in the drill, the tool itself will begin to break down. In solid-carbide drills, the common
tool for drilling hard materials, micro cracks can form on the cutting edges, which will eventually cause the
drill to fail. A reinforced edge preparation becomes necessary to combat the stresses created.

“Hard material naturally is hard on the cutting edge, so edge prep is critical,” said Vetrecin. “Drills that you
would use on mild steel, for example, cannot be used because their edge prep isn’t correct. When cutting
hard materials there usually is a reinforcement placed on the cutting edge, such as a T-land, so it doesn’t
chip as easily.”

In addition to cutting edge reinforcement, solid-carbide drills designed for hard materials often have
straight flutes, which adds some rigidity to the tool. A harder grade of carbide also is used.

Because the amount of heat generated is high, a coated tool is the correct choice.

“Our tools have a PVD [physical vapor deposition] titanium aluminum coating, which acts as a barrier
between the carbide and the material being cut, essentially acting as a shield so the heat doesn’t get into
the tool,” said Vetrecin. “If you can control heat, you can control tool life.”
• When the heat stays in the drill, the tool itself will
begin to break down.
• In solid-carbide drills, the common tool for drilling hard
materials, micro cracks can form on the cutting edges,
which will eventually cause the drill to fail.
• A reinforced edge preparation becomes necessary to
combat the stresses created.
• “Hard material naturally is hard on the cutting edge, so
edge prep is critical,”
• “Drills that you would use on mild steel, for example,
cannot be used because their edge prep isn’t correct.
Solution for hard material drilling
• Because the amount of heat generated is high, a
coated tool is the correct choice.
• “Our tools have a PVD [physical vapor deposition]
titanium aluminum coating, which acts as a barrier
between the carbide and the material being cut,
essentially acting as a shield so the heat doesn’t get
into the tool,”
• “If you can control heat, you can control tool life.”
• The ICM exchangeable drill head was developed for
cutting stainless steel, but works well with hard
materials because it has a T-land on the cutting edge.
Alternative method
Laser drilling
• Laser drilling of cylindrical holes generally occurs
through melting and vaporization (also referred to as
"ablation") of the work piece material through
absorption of energy from a focused laser beam.
• Incremental improvements in laser process and control
technologies have led to substantial increases in the
number of cooling holes used in turbine engines.
• Fundamental to these improvements and increased use
of laser drilled holes is an understanding of the
relationship between process parameters and hole
quality and drilling speed.
• https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_drilling
• http://www.canadianmetalworking.com/article/manageme
nt/drilling-hard-material. Date : 26/4/17 (1 to 3 site)
• http://advancedmanufacturing.org/drilling-difficult-
materials
• http://d2n4wb9orp1vta.cloudfront.net/resources/images/c
dn/cms/Four%20common%20laser%20drilling%20techniqu
es.jpg
• http://www.google.co.in/search?
q=drilling+operation+animation&biw=360&bih=568&site=w
ebhp&tbm=isch&prmd=vin&source=lnms&sa=X&ved=0ahU
KEwiLrp7x78TTAhUHo48KHZEaChQQ_AUICCgC#imgrc=0CtD
8b8JMVcchM:&spf=171. Date 27/4/17 (4 to 5)