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ANDREWS KEYS OF IDEAL

OCCLUSION
INTRODUCTION

PRINCIPLES

IMPORTANCE

FIRST KEY OF OCCLUSION

SECOND KEY OF OCCLUSION

THIRD KEY OF OCCLUSION


CONTENTS FOURTH KEY OF OCCLUSION

FIFTH KEY OF OCCLUSION

SIXTH KEY OF OCCLUSION

CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION

For over 100 years orthodontists have always followed


a classic guideline given by Angle in diagnosis - The
mesiobuccal cusp of the upper first permanent molar
should rest on mesiobuccal groove of the lower first
permanent molar. Even though it was genuine &
accurate, how sufficient it was? It has always remained
a question over these years
In the early 60s Lawrence.F.Andrews proposed a solution in the

form of six significant characteristics, which were found to be

consistently present in collection of 120 models of teeth with

naturally excellent occlusion in his research findings.


IMPORTRANCE OF THE SIX KEYS

 They are a complete set of indicators of optimal


occlusion .

 Proper Diagnosis .

 treatment planning.

 When incorporated they enhance aesthetics and


function occlusion .
1 .THE FIRST KEY : MOLAR
INTERARCH RELATIONSHIP

According to Andrew's concept: - The mesiobuccal cusp of the


upper first molar should occlude in the groove between the mesial
and mid buccal cusp of the lower first molar.
Long axis of the crown

 Vertical line = Long axis of the clinical crown (= LACC)


 LA spot = Center of the long axis of the clinical crown
Mesiodistal angulation of the crown

The angulation of the crown is defined as the angle which the


tooth forms with a line drawn perpendicular to the occlusal plane.
2. Second key of normal occlusion:
Mesiodistal crown angulation

For the occlusion to be considered normal, the gingival part of


the long axis of the crown must be distal to the occlusal part of
the axis.
Mesiodistal crown angulation for various
types of upper teeth

 Horizontal plane of reference = Line passing through all LA spots


 Vertical plane of reference = Perpendicular to the horizontal plane
 According to Andrews, in the upper jaw the crowns of the canines
exhibit the greatest degree of angulation and the premolars the
least.
3. Third key of occlusion: Labiolingual
crown inclination

If the gingival area of the crown is more toward the lingual, the
result is expressed in positive values; should the opposite apply, if
the result is negative.
Labiolingual crown inclination between
upper and lower incisors

--- Tooth crown


tangent
––– Perpendicular to
the occlusal plane
–––– Long axes of the
incisors
Labiolingual inclination of the
posterior teeth in optimal occlusion

the gingival portions of the teeth are more


pronounced buccally than the occlusal portions.

 The upper canines and premolars are inclined


at virtually the same angle, whereby the molars
are tilted slightly more.
4. Fourth key of occlusion:
Absence of Rotation

Rotated posterior teeth occupy more space in the dental arch than
normal.
5. Fifth key of occlusion: Tight
contacts, no spacing

To consider occlusion to be normal there should be tight


contact between adjacent teeth.
6. Sixth key of occlusion:
Curve of Spee

 In normal occlusion curve of Spee should not


exceed 1.5mm
a- An excessive curve of Spee
b- A normal occlusion
c- A reverse curve of Spee
CONCLUSION

Successful orthodontic treatment involves many disciplines,


not all of which are always within our control.
Compromise treatment should not be acceptable when
treatment limitations do not exist. In that nature's non-
orthodontic normal models provide such a beautiful and
consistent guideline, it seems that we should, when possible,
let these guidelines be our measure of the static relationship
of successful orthodontic treatment.
Achieving the final desired occlusion is the purpose of attending
to the six keys to normal occlusion
REFERENCE

 Am journal of orthodontics 1972 75


296- 309
 Textbook of orthodontics premkumar
 Textbook of orthodontics sandeep
goyal
 Orthodontic Diagnosis - Thomas
Rakosi, Irmtrud Jonas, Thomas M.
Graber - Thieme, 1993
Thank you