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IEEE 802.

11: WIRELESS LAN


TECHNOLOGY

VARSHA RAJ
S7, ECE
53

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OUTLINE
• Wi-Fi Introduction
• IEEE 802.11
• WLAN architecture
• WLAN transmission technology
• IEEE 802.11 Frame format

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INTRODUCTION
• It is a wireless technology that uses radio
frequency to transmit data through the air.
• Wi-Fi is the generic term that refers to IEEE
802.11 communications standard for WLANs.
• Wi-Fi works on physical and data link layers of
the network model.

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COMPONENTS OF 802.11
.

BSS (1)
• A MAC, PHY layer specification
STA 1 • Basic Service Set (BSS)
(AP)
• Distribution System (DS)
DS • Station (STA)
STA 2 • STA that is providing access to
(AP)
Distribution System Service
(DSS) is an Access Point (AP)
BSS (2)

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WLAN ARCHITECTURE
• Infrastructured wireless LAN

• Ad-Hoc LAN
Independent Basic Service Set Network

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AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS
• IEEE 802.11 stations can dynamically form a group
without AP
• Ad Hoc Network: no pre-existing infrastructure

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802.11 STANDARD
• 802.11 is primarily concerned with the lower layers of
the OSI model.

• Data Link Layer


Logical Link Control (LLC).
Medium Access Control (MAC).

• Physical Layer
Physical Layer Convergence Procedure (PLCP).
Physical Medium Dependent (PMD).

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802.11 STANDARD

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IEEE 802.11
• Physical Layer
– 2.4G Hz (5.15-5.35GHz, 5.725-5.825GHz for 802.11a)
– Spread Spectrum

• MAC Layer
– CSMA/CA

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PHYSICAL (PHY) LAYER

1. FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum)


2. DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)
3. IR (Infrared)

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SPREAD SPECTRUM
• The radio based physical layer
in 802.11 uses 3 different
spread spectrum techniques:

1. Frequency Hopping (FS or FSSS)


2. Direct Sequence (DS or DSSS)
3. Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing ( OFDM )

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DIRECT SEQUENCE SPREAD
SPECTRUM

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FREQUENCY HOPPING SPREAD
SPECTRUM

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MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL (MAC)
LAYER
• Distributed Coordinated Function (DCF).
• Point Coordination Function (PCF).

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DISTRIBUTED COORDINATED
FUNCTION (DCF)

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POINT COORDINATION FUNCTION
(PCF)
• Requires centralised
coordination
• Introduces contention
free period (CFP).
• Forces a fair acces to
the medium during CFP.

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FRAMING
• Function of Data link layer

Three category of frames:


• Management Frames
• Control Frames
• Data Frames

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IEEE 802.11 FRAME FORMAT

18
Subfields in FC field

14.19
ADDRESSING MECHANISM

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ADDRESSING MECHANISM

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SEQUENCE CONTROL

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REFERENCES
[1]B. Crow, I. Widjaja, J. Kim and P. Sakai, "IEEE 802.11
Wireless Local Area Networks", IEEE Communications
Magazine, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 116-126, 1997.

[2] M. Gast. 802.11 Wireless Networks: The Definitive Guide.


O’Reilly, 2005.

[3]Chatzimisios,P.,Vitsas,V. and Boucouvalas, A. (n.d.).Throughput


and delay analysis of IEEE 802.11 protocol. Proceedings 3rd IEEE
International Workshop on System-on-Chip for Real-Time
Applications, 2015.

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.
REFERENCES
[4]C. Murthy and S. Manoj. Ad Hoc Wireless Networks:
Architecture and Protocols. Prentice Hall, 2004.

[5]Kaewkiriya, T. Performance comparison of Wi-Fi IEEE


802.11ac and Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11n. 2nd International
Conference on Communication Systems, Computing and
ITApplications (CSCITA),2017.

[6] J. Geier. Understanding 802.11 Frame Types, August 2002.


http://www.wi-fiplanet. com/tutorials/article.php/1447501.

[7]C. Murthy and S. Manoj. Ad Hoc Wireless Networks:


Architecture and Protocols. Prentice Hall, 2004
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