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Batching, Mixing, Transporting,

and Handling Concrete


Stages in concrete making
 Batching.
 Mixing.
 Transporting.
 Placing.
 Compacting.
 Finishing.
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
 Curing.
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 4/20/2019
BATCHING
Batching is the process of measuring
concrete mix ingredients by either
mass or volume and introducing
them into the mixer. To produce
concrete of uniform quality, the
ingredients must be measured
accurately for each batch.
Percentages of accuracy of
measurement of cementitious
material ±1%, aggregates ± 2%,
Batching, Mixing, water ±1%, and admixtures ± 3%.
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
BATCHING
Equipment should be capable of
measuring quantities within these
tolerances for the smallest batch
regularly used as well as for larger
batches. The accuracy of scales and
batching equipment should be checked
periodically and adjusted when
necessary.

Control room for batching


Batching, Mixing, equipment in a typical ready
mixed concrete plant.
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Batching
Volume Batching.
All materials measured by volume.
Expressed in relative ratios
Difficult to ensure quality.

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 4/20/2019
Batching

Weigh Batching

Materials quantities
by weight
Simple and
accurate

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 4/20/2019
FEEDING SEQUENCE
 25% water
 50% course aggregate
 50% fine aggregate
 100% cement
 50% course aggregate
 50% fine aggregate
 75% water
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
 Hand Mixing

Mixing  Small jobs

 Inferior mixing

 Low quality

concrete
 Machine Mixing
 Good mixing

 Large works

 concrete mixers
 Tilting mixers
 Non-tilting mixers
 Reversing drum
mixers
 Pan type or stirring
mixers
Batching, Mixing, Small pan mixer  Transit mixer
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete Plain and Reinforced Concrete 4/20/2019
Mixers Types

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Maintenance of Mixers
 Well maintained mechanically
 Place on firm and leveled platform
 Drum and blades must be cleaned
 Drum should be kept in tilting
position to avoid rain water
collection
 The skip must rest on proper
cushion such as sand bags

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Stationary Mixing
 Stationary Mixers
 Onsite or Central Mix R/M plant
 Used for complete or shrink
mixing
 Mixer Types ― up to 9m3
 Tilting or non-tilting drum

 Open top revolving blade or


paddle
 Typical complete mixing times
 Minimum of 1 min. for up to 1
yd3 or less mixer capacity plus
Batching, Mixing, 15 sec. for each additional yd3
Transporting, and or fraction thereof
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Mixing Time
 Mixer speed is 15 to 20 rpm
 25 to 30 revolutions are adequate.
 Lesser mixing result in poor
concrete.
 Over mixing is uneconomical.
 Mixing beyond 2 mins does improve
strength of concrete.
 Mixing time is mixer capacity
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
dependent.
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Mixing time- affect on Strength

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Mixing Time

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Mixing time- affect on Strength

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Ready Mix Concrete
Ready mixed concrete is proportioned and mixed off the
project site and is delivered to the construction area in a
freshly mixed and unhardened state

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Ready Mixed Concrete

 Central-mixed concrete
 mixed completely in a
stationary mixer
 delivered in

 a truck agitator
 a truck mixer operating
at agitating speed
 a nonagitating truck
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Ready Mixed Concrete

 Shrink-mixed concrete
 mixed partially in a
stationary mixer and
completed in a truck mixer
 Truck-mixed concrete
 mixed completely in a
truck mixer

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Truck Mixed Concrete

 70 to 100 revolutions required for mixing,


mixing speed = 6 to 18 rpm

 After mixing, drum revolves at agitating


speed, 2 to 6 rpm

 Discharge before exceeding 300 drum


revolutions
Batching, Mixing,  Discharge before 1½ hours
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Ordering Ready Mixed Concrete

Specify:
 Coarse aggregate size

 Slump

 Air content

 Basis for proportioning,

select Options A ,B, or C.


Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Ordering Ready Mixed Concrete

Option A—performance based:

Purchaser specifies:
 Compressive strength

Concrete producer selects mix


proportions.
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Ordering Ready Mixed Concrete

Option B—prescription based:

Purchaser specifies mixture


proportions including:
 Cement content

 Water content

 Admixture type and content


Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Ordering Ready Mixed Concrete

Option C—mixed option:

Purchaser specifies:
 Compressive strength

 Cement content

 Admixture type and content

Concrete producer selects mix


Batching, Mixing, proportions.
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Ready
Mix Plant

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Mobile Batcher Mixer
 Used for: Intermittent
production of concrete at
jobsite, or small quantities.

 Advantages: Combined
materials transporter and
batching and mixing system.
One-man operation.

 Watch for: Good preventive


maintenance program.
Batching, Mixing, Materials must be identical to
Transporting, and those in original mix design.
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
4/20/2019
Nonagitating Truck
 Used for: Transport concrete
on short hauls over smooth
roadways.

 Advantages: Cost of
nonagitating equipment is
lower than that of truck
agitators or mixers.

 Watch for: Slump should be


limited. Possibility of
Batching, Mixing, segregation. Height upon
Transporting, and discharge is needed.
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Agitator Trucks
 Used for: Transporting concrete for all
uses. Haul distances must allow
discharge of concrete within 1½ hours.

 Advantages: Operate usually from


central mixing plants.

 Watch for: Timing of deliveries should


suit job organization. Concrete crew and
equipment must be ready onsite to
handle concrete.
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Remixing Concrete (1)

Water may be added at jobsite


provided:
 Spec. w/c-ratio is not exceeded

 Measured slump less than specified

 Allowable mixing and agitating time


(or drum revolutions) are not
exceeded
 Concrete is remixed

Batching, Mixing,  min. 30 rev. at mixing speed


Transporting, and  until uniformity is within limits
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Transporting and Handling
 Transporting
 Mortar pan
 Wheel barrow

 Chutes

 Dumper

 Bucket and
Ropeway
 Belt conveyor

 Skip and Hoist


Batching, Mixing,  Pumping
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Transporting and
Handling
Wheelbarrows and Buggies
 Used for: Short flat hauls on
all types of onsite concrete
construction.

 Advantages: Versatile—ideal
inside and on jobsites with
changing placing conditions.

 Watch for: Slow and labor


intensive.
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Transporting and Handling
Belt conveyor
 Used for: Conveying concrete
horizontally or higher/lower
level.
 Advantages: Adjustable
reach, traveling diverter,
variable speed.
 Watch for: End-discharge
arrangements needed to
prevent segregation and
Batching, Mixing, mortar on return belt. Belt
cover needed in hot and windy
Transporting, and weather. 4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Transporting and Handling
Truck mounted conveyors
 Used for: Conveying concrete
horizontally or higher/lower
level.
 Advantages: Conveyer arrives
with concrete. Adjustable
reach and variable speed.
 Watch for: End-discharge
arrangements needed to
prevent segregation and
mortar on return belt. Belt
Batching, Mixing, cover needed in hot and windy
Transporting, and weather.
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Transporting and
Handling
Buckets
 Used with: Cranes,
cableways, and helicopters.
 Advantages: Enables full
versatility of cranes,
cableways, and helicopters to
be exploited. Clean discharge.
 Watch for: Select bucket
capacity to conform to size of
Batching, Mixing, the concrete batch and
Transporting, and capacity of placing equipment.
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Transporting and
Handling
ocean construction site using a ferry

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Transporting and Handling

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete Rear
Front
Discharge
Discharge
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
4/20/2019
Transporting and Handling
Cranes and Buckets
 Used for: Work above ground
level.
 Advantages: Can handle
concrete, reinforcing steel,
formwork, and sundry items.
 Watch for: Has only one hook.
Careful scheduling between
trades and operations is
needed to keep crane busy
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Transporting and Handling

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Transporting and Handling
Pumps
 Used for: Conveying concrete from
central discharge point to formwork.

 Advantages: Pipelines take up little


space and can be readily extended.
Delivers concrete in continuous
stream. Pump can move.

 Watch for: Constant supply of


Batching, Mixing, freshly-mixed concrete is needed
Transporting, and without any tendency to segregate.
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 4/20/2019
Transporting and Handling
Flexible Hose at End of Pump’s Rigid Pipeline

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete 4/20/2019
Transporting and Handling

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Pumpable Concrete : A concrete which can
be pushed through a pipeline is called a
pumpable concrete. It is made in such a
manner that its friction at the inner wall of the
pipeline does not become very high and that
it does not wedge while flowing through the
pipeline. A clear understanding of what
happens to concrete when it is pumped
through pipeline is fundamental to any study
of concrete pumping. Pumpable concrete
emerging from a pipeline flows in the form of
a plug which is separated from the pipe wall
by a thin lubricating layer consisting of
cement paste. The water in the paste is
hydraulically linked with the interparticle
water layer in the plug.
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
For continuous plug movement, the pressure
generated by the flow resistance must not be
greater than the pump pressure rating. However,
if the concrete is too saturated at higher w/c
ratio, the concrete at certain pump pressures
may be such that water is forced out of the mix,
creating an increase in flow resistance and a
possible blockage. Fig. illustrates such a
condition. In other words, a very stiff concrete
is not pumpable and also a concrete with high
w/c ratio is also not pumpable. It is interesting
to note that if a concrete is pumpable, it is
implied that it is a good concrete.

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Design Considerations for Pumpable
Concrete : The mix is proportioned in such a
way that it is able to bind all the constituent
materials together under pressure from the
pump and thereby avoiding segregation and
bleeding. The mix must also facilitate the
radial movement of sufficient grout to
maintain the lubricating film initially placed
on the pipeline wall. The mix should also be
able to deform while flowing through bends.
To achieve this, the proportion of fines i.e.,
cement and fine particles below 0.25 mm
size (particles below 300 microns Appx.) is
of prime importance. The quantities of fine
particles between 350 to 400 kg/m3 are
Batching, Mixing,
considered necessary for pumpable concrete.
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
The above quantities are not only found
necessary for maintaining the lubricating
film, but it is important for quality and
workability and to cover individual grains.
There are two main reasons why
blockages occur and that the plug of
concrete will not move: " Water is being
forced out of the mix creating bleeding
and blockage by jamming, or " There is
too much frictional resistance due to the
nature of the ingredients of the mix

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
While it is important to maintain good
grading and low void content, it is not
always possible to design pumpable mix
around ideal aggregate. Naturally
occurring aggregate as well as crushed
aggregates are suitable for pumpable mix,
but it is essential to be aware of grading,
void content and uniformity. The slump of
pumpable concrete is kept at 75 mm to
collapse range and the diameter of the
pipeline is at least 3 – 4 times the
maximum size of aggregate. Mix Design
process of pumpable concrete will be
further dealt in Chapter 11under “Concrete
Batching, Mixing, Mix Design.”
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Choosing the Correct Pump For choosing the
correct pump one must know the following
factors " Length of horizontal pipe " Length of
vertical pipe " Number of bends " Diameter of
pipeline " Length of flexible hose " Changes in
line diameter " Slump of Concrete. Fig. Shows
the line pressure and pumping rate as functions
of line diameter, pumping distance and slump.
Making use of this nomograph one can find the
rated capacity of the pump. This rated capacity
should be modified to actual capacity required

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Pressure in the pipe can be estimated
using the following guidelines. " Start up
pressure required by pump = 20 bars "
Every 20 m horizontal pipeline = 1.0 bar
" Every 4 m Vertical pipeline = 1.0 bar "
Every 90° bend = 1.0 bar " Every 45°
bend = 0.5 bar " Every pipe coupling =
0.1 bar " Every 5 m end hose = 2.0 bar "
Safety factor = 10% extra

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Pump Capacity Planning

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete Plain and Reinforced Concrete 4/20/2019
Transporting and Handling

Screw Spreaders
 Used for: Spreading concrete
over large flat areas.
 Advantages: Concrete can be
quickly spread over a wide
area to a uniform depth.
 Watch for: They are normally
used as part of a paving train.
They should be used for
Batching, Mixing, spreading before vibration is
Transporting, and applied.
4/20/2019
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Transporting and Handling

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and Work Above Ground4/20/2019 Level
Handling Concrete
Plain and Reinforced Concrete
PLACING
 Drop Height < 1.5m
 Throw Concrete on already placed fresh
Concrete
 Start at the far end and work to the near
end.
 On a slope use stiffer concrete and work
up the slope
 In vertical members, use differential
slump
Batching, Mixing,  Use Tremie method for underwater
Transporting, and concreting
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Types
compaction
Hand
Mechanical

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Mechanical-Sequence
Spread the concrete using
square ended spades or shovels;
never use vibrating poker to
spread the concrete
Use vibratory pokers for
compaction / consolidation

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
COMPACTION
Vertical- not more than 10o Angle

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
COMPACTION
External Vibrators
For very complex formwork
and reinforcement
For Precast plants
Compaction of Thin Layers
only
Watch for over vibration

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete
COMPACTION
Rules
•How do you know that compaction is
complete??
“No more Air bubbles rising (<1% voids)”
“No Honeycombing and No mortar collection”
•Vertical - not more than 10o Angle
•Compaction around rebars is very important,
any air or water left there will induce early
corrosion
•Don’t touch rebars and formwork
Gradual Withdrawal to close the holes

Batching, Mixing,
Transporting, and
Handling Concrete
4/20/2019 Plain and Reinforced Concrete