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Beams are slender members that are used for supporting transverse
(perpendicular to axis) loading. Long horizontal members used in buildings and
bridges, and shafts supported in bearings are some examples of beams. Beams
with cross sections that are symmetrical with respect to plane of loading are
considered here. Figure below shows a general horizontal beam with the possible
types of loading. Another figure shows the cross section and the bending stress
The Potential Energy expression for a beam:
Expression for Strain Energy ‘U’:
Expression for Work Potential ‘WP’:
Finite element formulation of beam element:
Shape functions for beam element:
For beam element the shape functions should represent
displacement (deflection ‘v’ perpendicular to axis of beam) as
well as slope ‘dv/dx’.

The Hermite Cubic polynomial functions are the best-suited

shape functions to represent the displacement (deflection ‘v’ &
slope ‘dv/dx’) for beam element.

They are represented by the letter ‘H’ (not ‘N’).

However, the geometry of the beam ‘x’ can be represented by

the shape functions [N] used for 2 noded 1D element.

Hence, the beam element formulation is called ‘Sub-Parametric

H1 & H2 are the shape functions at node 1 representing deflection & slope respectively
H3 & H4 are the shape functions at node 2 representing deflection & slope respectively
Derivation of Element Stiffness Matrix:
The Element Stiffness Matrix is derived from the Strain Energy
Term of the Potential Energy expression.
Derivation of load vector:

Consideration of point loads Pm and Mk:

The point loads Pm and Mk are readily taken care of by
introducing nodes at their points of application.
Consideration of distributed load ‘p’:
We have to convert the distributed load ‘p’ into equivalent
point loads and moments at the nodes. This can be done as
Find the deflection and slope at the point where the
concentrated load of 20 kN is acting on the beam shown in
figure. Assume Young’s Modulus for beam material to be
210 GPa and the area moment of inertia of the cross
section of the beam as 2 × 10-6 m4.
Fem Stress-Strain Analysis Of 2D Structural Problems

Force Vector

Body Force

Point Force

Modelling of the Plate Continuum using Triangular Elements

There are totally 20 nodes on the

discretised continuum.
Total DOFs are 202 = 40,
i.e., 20 DOFs in the x direction
plus 20 DOFs in the y direction.
Constant Strain Triangular (CST) Element:

The strain at any arbitrary point inside the triangular element is constant
Iso-parametric Formulation of CST Element:
Derivation of Strain-Displacement Matrix:
Since [B] is a matrix of constants (x, y coordinate
differences), the strain vector {} also is constant. Hence,
the name CST (Constant Strain Triangular) Element.
Derivation of Element Matrices:
Derivation of Element Stiffness Matrix [k]e:
Derivation of Element Body Force Vector {b}e:
To derive the Element Body Force Vector, we have to consider the
Body Force Term from the Potential Energy expression.
Derivation of Element Traction Force Vector {T}e:
To derive the Element Traction Force Vector, we have to consider
the Traction Force Term from the Potential Energy expression

Let us consider that a uniformly

distributed load (traction force) T is
acting normal to the edge 2-3 of the
triangular element.

The traction force term (TFT) for

edge 2-3 can be written as:
Consideration of Point Load:

Pix gets added to the (2i-1)th component

Piy gets added to the (2i)th component
of the Global Force Vector {F}
• Boundary conditions are applied to the {F} = [K]{Q} relationship.
• {F} = [K]{Q} relationship gets modified.
• The set of simultaneous equations in Qi are solved to yield the
displacement vector {Q}.
Problem (1):
The corners (nodes) of a
triangular element are A(70, 30),
B(120,50) & C(90,100). Assuming
it to be a CST element, evaluate
the load contributions of the CST
element to the global force vector
using the following details:

Plate thickness = 10 mm
Weight/unit volume = 7850 kg/m3
A traction force of 2 N/mm2 is
acting normal and outward to the
surface of the edge BC.
Determination of body force components:
Since the weight of the static element
will be acting downwards, there is no
body force component acting along
‘x’ direction.

Determination of traction force components:

Evaluation of body force vector:
The body force vector for a CST
element is given as:
Evaluation of traction force vector:
The traction force vector for a CST
element is given as:
Traction force
is acting only
on the edge
BC. Hence,
node A is
independent of
the effect of
traction force.
Problem (2):

Evaluate the element stiffness matrix for a CST element

whose details are as follows:

(x1, y1) = (50,60), (x2, y2) = (80,90) & (x3, y3) = (30,75)
Element thickness = 6 mm
Poisson’s Ratio = 0.3
Young’s Modulus = 200 GPa
Plane Strain Problem
The problem under consideration is a Plane Strain
Problem for which the [D] matrix is given as: