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# Lumped Capacitance

Method
Nalin Seth
14203218
CHEN 30130 Heat Transfer & Fluid Mechanics 2018/19
Lumped Capacitance Method
It is used to determine the variation in temperature
with time for transient heat transfer conditions. It is
useful in electrical systems, mechanical multibody
systems, heat transfer, acoustics etc.

## The Criteria for its applicability is the Biot Number

hLc
Bi 
Where k
𝑘→ thermal conductivity of the solid 𝐿𝑐 →
characteristic length of the solid (∀/𝐴𝑠 or
coordinate associated with maximum spatial
temperature difference)
The Lumped Capacitance
Ėout = qconv
Energy Balance: Ėin + Ėg - Ėout = Ėst

## -Ėout = -qconv= -hAs(T-T ) = Ėst = Vc(dT/dt) Ėst

And : θ ≡ T-T
𝜌𝑉𝑐 𝑑𝜃
= −𝜃
ℎ𝐴𝑠 𝑑𝑡
𝜌𝑉𝑐 𝜃 𝑑𝜃 𝑡
න = − න 𝑑𝑡 , 𝜃𝑖 ≡ 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇∞
ℎ𝐴𝑠 𝜃𝑖 𝜃 0

𝜌𝑉𝑐 𝜃
ln = −𝑡
ℎ𝐴𝑠 𝜃𝑖

𝜃 𝑇 − 𝑇∞ ℎ𝐴𝑠
= = exp[ − ( )𝑡]
𝜃𝑖 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇∞ 𝜌𝑉𝑐
Lumped Capacitance Method Validity
T < Ts,2 < Ts,1
𝑘𝐴
(𝑇 − 𝑇𝑠,2 ) = ℎ𝐴(𝑇𝑠,2 − 𝑇∞ )
𝐿 𝑠,1
(𝑇𝑠,1 − 𝑇𝑠,2 ) (𝐿/𝑘𝐴) 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 ℎ𝐿
= = = ≡ 𝐵𝑖
(𝑇𝑠,2 − 𝑇∞ ) (1/ℎ𝐴) 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣 𝑘

## Biot (Bi) number is the ratio of conduction resistance to

convection resistance
Characteristic Length Lc ≡ V/As
Lc = ½ L for plane wall
Lc = r0/2 for long cylinder
Lc =r0/3 for sphere
Lumped Capacitance Method Validity (Contd.)
ℎ𝐿𝑐 𝜌𝑐𝐿𝑐
𝐵𝑖 = 𝜏𝑡 =
𝑘 ℎ
Bi <<1 (Bi < 0.1)
Conduction resistance within solid is much less than the
resistance to convection across the fluid boundary layer. The T
distribution inside the solid is negligible.
Lumped capacitance method is valid when Bi<0.1
𝑡 ℎ𝑡 ℎ𝐿𝑐 𝑘 𝑡
= =[ ][ ][ ]
𝜏𝑡 𝜌𝑐𝐿𝑐 𝑘 𝜌𝑐 𝐿2𝑐

ℎ𝐿𝑐 𝑘 𝑡 𝑡
[ ][ ][ 2 ] = 𝐵𝑖 ∗ {[𝛼][ 2 ]} = 𝐵𝑖 ∗ 𝐹𝑜
𝑘 𝜌𝑐 𝐿𝑐 𝐿𝑐
𝛼𝑡
Where Fo is Fourier number 𝐹𝑜 ≡ 𝐿2𝑐

𝜃 𝑇 − 𝑇∞ 𝑡
= = exp[ − ] = exp( − 𝐵𝑖 ∗ 𝐹𝑜)
𝜃𝑖 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇∞ 𝜏𝑡
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