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Work Permit System

A permit-to-work system is a formal written system
used to control certain types of work that are
potentially hazardous. A permit-to-work is a document
which specifies the work to be done and the
precautions to be taken. Permits-to-work form an
essential part of safe systems of work for many
maintenance activities.
The objectives of the work permit system are to exercise
control over the maintenance, repair and construction
activities by assigning responsibilities, ensuring clear cut
communication between various functions & safety
considerations to the job, its hazards and the precautions
The objective of the Safe Work Permit system is to
identify hazards associated with any maintenance job, and
to develop precautions required to control each hazard
Control Measures for Safety

• Written procedure to ensure consistency

• Clearly defined roles and accountabilities
• Trained and competent people to carry out
those roles
• Planning and controlling of work – including
interaction with other jobs going on in the
Control Measures for Safety
• Risk assessment
– Identify hazards
– Put appropriate control measures in place including
safe isolation and decontamination of equipment
– Emergency measures
– Common understanding between parties involved
– Normally done in form of JSA
• Permit forms and checklists
• Authorisation
• Communication of hazards and control measures
to all involved
Control Measures for Safety
• Ongoing monitoring as job progresses
including revalidation / extension
• Stopping of job if the job or other conditions
change – reassessment of safety
• Sign off process once complete and return to
safe operations
• Regular permit auditing and incorporating
lessons learned into system
Permit Formats
Two types of permit to Work :

1. Cold Work Permit.

2. Hot work permit.
In addition there will be supplemented formats/ checklists:
i. Electrical request form for Isolation / Restoration.
ii. Excavation clearance form.
iii. System By-Pass form.
iv. Vehicle Entry checklist.
v. Confined space entry checklist.
vi. Blind checklist.
vii. Fresh Air Authorization form.
viii. Working at height.
Permit Formats Contd…..
Permit Frmat Contd….

 Approver for Road blockage.

 List of Authorized Gas safety testers.

 List of Authorized Permit receivers.

 List of Authorized Permit Issuers.

 Apart from these a Blanket permit will be issued in

Laboratories and Maintenance Workshops, contractor sheds,
canteens and other areas as required, valid for a period of
maximum 30 days
Permit Formats Contd…..
These 02 permits will cover the following jobs.

Cold Work Permit

 Cold work
 Blind / De Blind
 Electrical work.
 Excavation work.(Manual)

Hot work permit

 Hot work.
 Confined space entry.
 Radiation source work.
 Vehicle /Equipment entry.
 Work on equipment in service.
 Fresh air equipment in Hazardous service.
Permit Formats Contd…..

Hot work permit (Light Pink).

Printed serially with 3 copies

 Receiver copy –Full pink color

 Issuer copy – White in color and written “ISSUER” across in pink.
 Fire dept copy - White in color and written “FIRE” across in pink.

Cold work permit

Printed serially with 2 copies

Receiver copy –Full Yellow color.

Issuer copy – White in color and written “ISSUER” across in Yellow.
Permit Issuer / Receiver…
Agency Issuer Receiver Endorsement Remarks
HMEL Field Maintenance Authority
Supervisor Engineer, limits as
“O & M” HMEL per
contractor permit
“O & M” Shift-In- Authorized HMEL For Hot
Contractor Charge person Jobs

No person can issue work permit to himself.

Both the permit Issuer and Requestor can be from the same
Permit Procedure

 Cold work :Activities included few examples:

• Erection / removal of scaffolding.

• Insulation of equipment / pipelines.

• Equipment greasing and lubrication.

• Routine maintenance of extinguishers, hydrants/monitors.

Permit Procedure
 Cold work :Activities included few examples:

•Condition monitoring of rotary equipment.

• Work At Height: Any work at or above 2.0 meter above

ground level, where permanent platform / railing is not

• Maintenance work on electrical equipments in process

Plant area after Isolation.

• De-choking / cleaning of process and utility lines

Permit Procedure


Before issuing a "CWP to Blind/ De Blind” the equipment must

be cleared of toxic materials, hydrocarbons, and then
depressurized, drained, Purged with N2 / Steam and tagged by
Field Engineer .

Note: Checklist for Blind / De-Blind has to be used.

Permit Procedure
 Electrical Work
Electrical Isolation
Electrical isolation and restoration shall be carried out using
Electrical Isolation Energization Request form along with cold
work permit.

The Requestor shall enter details like equipment tag number,
name of the equipment, location and work description,
isolation requirements, etc on Cold Work Permit.

The Issuer shall ensure that electrical isolations are complete

and then issue the permit.
Permit Procedure
 Excavation Work :

Any job, which requires excavation/ digging of earth.

 Excavation clearance certificate must be attached along

with the permit to excavate.

 The Requestor shall organize all clearances required under

the excavation clearance certificate.

 Permit issue will prevent damage to underground

equipment and services
Permit Procedure

Excavation Work :

Under Hot Under Cold

Permit Permit

As confined
Machine Manual
consideration if
Excavation Excavation
more than 1.2
mtrs. In depth.
Hot Work Permit
Under this permit the following jobs will be carried out :

Hot Work

Confined space entry

Radiation source work

Vehicle/ Equipment entry

Work on equipment in service

Fresh air equipment in Hazardous service.

Permit Procedure

 Hot work :Activities included few examples:

• Welding, burning, soldering, brazing, blasting, gas cutting,

chipping by spark producing tools, grinding, stress relieving,
and other equipment that may produce heat or a source of

• Use of Non-flame proof electrical equipment like cameras,

mobile phones, non intrinsically safe radio pagers etc, use of
certain power driven tools like pneumatic concrete breaker,
inside hazardous areas like Process area or tank farms etc.
Permit Procedure

 Hot work :Activities included few examples Contd….:

• Machine Excavation.

• Painting of equipment or pipelines, buildings at

temperatures above 50ºC. Pressure spray painting in Process
Confined space is defined as:

Large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter

and perform assigned work.
Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit.
Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
Is subjected to potential hazards, viz., accumulation of toxic or
flammable gas/ vapor, inert gas, oxygen deficient (<20%v/v),
flooding of liquid, steam or any other hazardous substance or
development of hazardous conditions.

 Reaching in a confined space (that meets all of above 4 criteria)

without HWP for confined space entry to do work is prohibited.

 Pits, sewers, excavations, and other confined spaces where the

heads of workers are below the top of the confined space, when
working, require a "Hot Work Permit for Confined Space Entry" and
a stand-by.
Permit Procedure

 Confined Space entry:

• Excavation more than 1.2 meter deep.

•Entry on floating roof tanks when the roof is more than 3

meter down from the top.
Permit Procedure

 Work on equipment in Service:

Work on equipment in service can be of two types:

Cold Work on Equipment in Service: Cold Work Permit is

required. For Example: Painting, Insulation work etc.

Hot Work on Equipment in Service: Hot work on equipment

in service refers to such work as welding and cutting hot
taps, welding boxes around leaks, welding for stopples, etc.
Hot Work Permit is required for them.
Permit Procedure

 Vehicle Equipment Entry:

Hot Work Permit for Vehicle /Equipment entry is applicable

to all motorized equipment, whether internal combustion
engine or electric motor drive, and includes not only
automobiles and trucks, but also cranes, forklifts, mowers,
weed eaters, portable pumps, generators, mixer machines
Permit Procedure
 Fresh Air Equipment in Hazardous service:

This procedure applies to work using Fresh Air (SCBA or Air-

Line) in hazardous atmosphere. For the purposes of this
procedure, a hazardous environment is one in which airborne
contaminants are present at a level at which Fresh Air is
required (e.g., over 10 ppm H2S or over 50 ppm Benzene.
Hazardous atmospheres include those containing air
contamination immediately dangerous to life (such as H2S) or
those that are oxygen deficient (less than 19.5%).

The approval authority depends on the degree of exposure

Permit Procedure
 Radioactivity Job:

All jobs involving radioactive sources such as new

installation of nucleonic gauges, operation and
maintenance of installed sources, radiography of weld
joints and for using radioisotopes for process studies
require a “Hot Work Permit for Radiation Source
Definition of JSA

Job safety analysis (JSA) is a process which involves:

•Careful study and recording of each step of a job.

• A JSA is a technique of screening job tasks as a way

to identify hazards before they occur.
Definition of JSA Contd…..

•Identifying potential or existing job hazards

generated by equipment or employee actions.

•Determining most efficient way to reduce or

eliminate hazards.
When to do the JSA ?

Job Safety Analysis must be done before the Work

Permit is issued for any job.
Break Job Into Steps

A step is a single activity that clearly

advances a work assignment and is
a logical portion of that assignment.
Steps From Actions

1. Observe the job from start to finish

several times

2. Separate the job into distinctive steps

3. Sequentially list the actions needed to

complete every step of the job
Steps From Actions
Once the job is identified, you must break it into
key components or sub-tasks and then identify
and list all the hazards associated with each
What can go wrong?
What are the consequences?
How could a problem happen?
How likely is it that the hazard will occur?
Following checklist can be used to find out the requirements to
carry out Job Safely:

 Scaffold (properly inspected)
 Scaffold (Complete handrails, toe boards, solidly decked)
Ladder (Condition, secured, placement)
 Walkways and handrails
 Fall Protection

 Lockout/ Tagged Properly shored / sloped
 Disconnected (If required) Escape ladder provided
 Properly grounded Competent person on site
 Good condition Entry permit required
 Authorized. Barricaded properly.
Checklist Cont…..

 Hydrocarbon Chemical burns
 Toxic Service Skin / Eyes
Steam Flammable
Skin Contamination


 Isolated & blinded Fire Blanket
 Tags displayed Cylinders secured
 Equipment made Hydrocarbon free. Cylinder caps in place
 Lockout complete ELCB
Cables without loose joints.
Spark Arrestor
Eliminating or Controlling the Hazards

Now that you've identified the job and evaluated

its sub-tasks and their hazards, you need to
identify ways to eliminate or control these
Four Essential Elements of a JSA

A. Select job for analysis

B. Break the job down into steps

C. Identify hazards and unsafe behaviors

D. Corrective Action - identify the correct/safe

way to perform the job
Gas Test Required for : General Guidelines Basic Reason
Hot Work The surrounding area of ten To check presence of flammable
meters radius and two meters gas/vapor
above and below the job location
is to be checked for presence of
flammable material. Check OWS
Confined space entry Inside confined space /vessel and For oxygen, toxic gas/vapor,
also outside confined space/vessel flammable gas/vapor, H2S, CO.
near manholes and openings.
Work on Equipment in In the vicinity of work location For toxic gas/vapor, flammable
Service gas/vapor
Vehicle Entry For all vehicles entering the ISBL To check presence of flammable
Area, check in the vicinity of gas/vapor in area
vehicle including drain channels (if
any) and close to flange
joints/valve glands of nearby
equipment, OWS drains.
Acceptable Limits of Gas test Results

Condition to Be Tested Acceptable Parameters

Oxygen content > 19.5% but < 23.5% O2

Flammable gases & vapors 0% of the LEL

Toxic gases and < 25% of the Threshold Limit Values

vapors/fumes (TLV). For TLV refer MSDS
Gas testing sequence
The correct gas testing sequence is :

• Presence of Oxygen

• Presence of Flammable
LEL vapours

• Presence of Toxics

Cold Work Permit

Hot Work Permit


 Cold work permit can be extended in shift and also can be

renewed for maximum of 7 days (inclusive of Date of Issue).

 Hot work permit can be extended only in shifts of the day in

which it has been issued. It cannot be renewed.

 Separate Renewal sheet for a Cold Work Permit will be attached

while renewing the permit.

 Approvals required must be taken on the Renewing work permit

as well.
Field Engineer
 Ensuring that the contractor provides the requisite PPE to his

 Keeps Console supervisor informed regarding job execution.

 Identifying any conflicting work and other activities already in

progress and if necessary stop them before giving clearance for the
new permit.

 Taking over the equipment in line, lining up &inform the Console

Supervisor about the completion of the job.

 Communication during shift handover.

Permit Requestor

 Requestor Plans, requests the Cold Work permit & prepares

for the Job. He ensures availability of Locks & tags required for
proper isolation as per job requirement.

 Prior to issue of work permit, the Issuer and Requestor shall

jointly inspect the job location and identify the requirements of
job preparation, Job Safety Analysis and special PPE required
for safe execution of the job .

 Display copy of the permit at job site.

Permit Requestor Cont….

 Ensuring that the contractor provides the requisite PPE to his


 Explaining to the work party the details of the work, all

hazards and precautions to be taken.

 Conducting relevant toolbox talk before the work is started.

 Permit close out.

Permit Issuer
 The issuer is responsible for issuing the work permit.

 The issuer of the Work Permit shall ensure that relevant

Check sheets as specified in the permit with respect to job have
been identified and completed.

 Sign the work permits that have been closed and maintain

 Confirming that all hazards associated with the work have

been identified through JSA..

 Carry out JSA with the requestor.

Permit Issuer Cont……

 Site inspection that all operational preparations including

mechanical and electrical isolations, draining and
depressurizing have been completed.

 Instructing the Field Engineer about the precautions he must

undertake before the work is permitted to start and which
precautions he must check during ongoing work.

 Knowing the status of the work at all times and clearly

communicates the status to the incoming shift during shift
Authorized Gas Safety Tester

 Carry out the gas testing as per the permit requirement.

 Frequency of gas testing will be decided by the permit issuer

in consultation with requestor.

 Check the equipment in fresh Air before gas testing.

 Reporting of Gas test results in the permit.

Note: If the Actual job didn’t start within 2 Hrs. of initial gas
test, then Gas test must be redone.
Attendant in a confined space entry

 Monitor and record the activities, on a continuous basis whilst

the work is being done inside the space.

 No person shall enter a confined space without permission of

the Attendant. Record in “Attendance Register”.

 Communication with the entrants.

 Maintaining an “Attendance Register”.

 Shall be aware on means of Rescue.

Permit Process
 Retention period of permit ?

Copies of completed/ used permits shall be properly filed and

kept as records for future reference for at least three months
from the date of completion of work .

Closed Permits shall be kept within the control room of that


A register for daily permits shall be maintained in hard copy

format by the Field Engineers for status purpose and permit
Permit Request Sequence .
Request for permit one day before at 03.30hrs in given

1) Prepare JSA in advance

2) Discuss JSA & approve with client
3) IF JSA Approve than take signature by Requestor Approver-1 (
Manger and above) in advance for HOT PERMIT.
4) Discuss next day planning with operation dept. & take
5) Prepare all related documents in advance
Permit Process Next day
1) Request for permit in between 07.45 hrs. to 09.00hrs

2)Attached JSA, TB, Check list , check list , hot permit check list ;
confined space need emergency reuse plan

3) After signing by issuer and requestor

For hot permit (other than vehicle entry )need Issuer
approval -1 signature

4) Before start the job take Filed Engineer signature

5)TB to carry out and requestor to sign on Permit “ TB done’’

Permit Process
Renewal of permit

1. At 15.30 hrs renewed permit and follow same

procedure as above.
2. Take approval -1 signature if required again which is
valid up to 17.00hrs . Again take RSS signature
3. Cold permit can renewed upto 7 days .
4. Hot permit valid only for one day .(except CDU/VDU,
Treater unit )
5. Permit should closed on same day and submit to FS .