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NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences P.D. Jenssen


THT282 Introduction to sustainable water and sanitation

Water treatment processes

Petter D. Jenssen and Manoj Pandey**


• Professor, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB)
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** Assistant professor, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

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Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES

90% of the worlds wastewater does


not receive any treatment (Corcoran et al. 2010)

Department of Plant and 7


Environmental Sciences www.umb.no
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Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences P.D. Jenssen Phosphorus is the major agent triggering
eutrophication (algeal blooms) in freshwaters

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The North Sea


Nitrogen is considered the main
element triggering eutrophication in
saltwater

Photo: R. Gjørven
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Norway at 1200 meters altitude
Green algae in a stream in

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Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences P.D. Jenssen

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Nitrogen can cause algea
growth in freshwater in

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alpine regions
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less than 1 mg/l

(Pandey et al. 2005)

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 BOD - 250 mg
Dry season:
Kathmandu, Nepal

 DO
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences P.D. Jenssen

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Kathmandu, Nepal
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Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences P.D. Jenssen

Putrification
Dry season:
 DO less than 1 mg/l
 BOD - 250 mg
(Pandey et al. 2005)

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NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Wastewater
treatment -
removal parameters

The objectives of sewage treatment will always


include the reduction of the concentration of at least
one of the below constituents:
Suspended solids;
Organic (biodegradable) material;
Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous);
Pathogenic organisms (expressed as E. Coli)
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Medicine residues, organic chemicals (POP´s)
Heavy metals

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Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Methods of Removal

The contaminants in wastewater are removed by different


unit processes:

 Physical (sedimetation, flotation, screening, filtration)


 Biological (trickling filters, RBC, activated sludge)
 Chemical (chemical precipitation, ozonation, chlorination)

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Wastewater Treatment –
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Processes

Primary Secondary Tertiarary


Remove Remove
organics and nutrients and
pathogens
ammonia

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Sludge treatment
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Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Methods of Removal
Physical Unit Processes (mainly primary)
Treatment methods in which the application of physical forces
predominates are known as physical unit operations. Typical unit
operations are:
– Screening
– Sedimentation
– Floatation
– Membrane filtration* (< 1um)

*Tertiary treatment

12 Salsnes
filter

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(tertiary)
Membrane Filter Technology
Sette inn egne bilder av membraner

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Membrane Filter Technology
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

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Wastewater Treatment –
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Processes

Primary Secondary Tertiarary


Remove Remove
organics and nutrients and
pathogens
ammonia

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Sludge treatment
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NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Methods of Removal (Contd.)


Biological Unit Processes (mainly secondary)
The treatment method in which the removal of contaminants is
brought about by biological activity are known as biological unit
process. Some examples are:
– aerobic processes - presence of dissolved oxygen
• Biofilters
• Trickling filters
• Activated sludge

– anaerobic processes – absence of dissolved oxygen


• Denitrification (tertiary)
• Septic tanks
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Biofilter
Porous media
LWA
Diam: 2,5 mm

Surface area
> 5000m2/m3

Bacteria on
LWA
surface
Wastewater spraying over a biofilter

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(fixed biofilm)
Biofilter: trickling filter

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Biofilter: Rotating biological
contactor - RBC (fixed biofilm)

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Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Biological treatment: Activated sludge


(biofilm in suspension)

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Activated sludge at Ryaverket Gothenburg
700 000 pe
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Wastewater Treatment -
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Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Processes

Primary Secondary Tertiarary


Remove Remove
organics and nutrients and
pathogens
ammonia

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Sludge treatment
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NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Methods of Removal (Contd.)


Chemical Unit Process (tertiary)
Treatment methods in which the removal or conversion of
contaminants is brought about by the addition of chemicals or by
chemical reactions are known as chemical unit processes. Some of
the most common are:
– Precipitation (lime, Fe- of Al salts, Struvite formation)
– Adsorption
– Disinfection

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NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Methods of Removal (Contd.)


Chemical Unit Process (tertiary)
Treatment methods in which the removal or conversion of
contaminants is brought about by the addition of chemicals or by
chemical reactions are known as chemical unit processes. Some of
the most common are:
– Precipitation
– Adsorption (Ion exchange)
– Disinfection

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NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Methods of Removal (Contd.)


Chemical Unit Process (tertiary)
Treatment methods in which the removal or conversion of
contaminants is brought about by the addition of chemicals or by
chemical reactions are known as chemical unit processes. Some of
the most common are:
– Precipitation
– Adsorption
– Disinfection (chlorination, UV-light, Ozone)

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Water and sludge treatment process at
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Bekkelaget
PAX-18

Primary
Precipitation

1900 l/s<Q< 4000 l/s

PAX-18
Q<1900 l/s
Overflow
Magasin~35.000m3
Q=1900 l/s Primary Clarifier Filter
Activated
Sand, grit and sludge
screenings FeSO4

Biogas-
4000 l/s < Q < 6000 l/s upgrading
Biogas
Bio sludge
Thickener

Primary sludge Buffertank


Digester Digester

Dewatering
Silo

Silo

Buffer
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NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.D. Jenssen

Removal efficiency %

Parameter Primary Secondary Tertiary

SS 50 - 80 80 - 90 >90

BOD 20 - 40 70 - 90 >90

P <10 30 >90

N <10 30 70

E. Coli 1 log 2 -3 log 3 - 5 (7)* logs

*with disinfection
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