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2.

2 Liquid
LEARNING OUTCOMES…
1. Explain the properties of liquids : shape, volume,
surface tension, viscosity, compressibility and
difussion.
2. Explain : - vaporisation process Based on Kinetic Molecular
Theory & Intermolecular
- condensation process Forces

3. Define vapour pressure and boiling point


Relate : - intermolecular forces to vapour pressure
- vapour pressure to boiling point
Why a water strider can “walk” on
water ?
Why water beads on waxy surface
such as an apple, leaf or a freshly
waxed car after a rainfall?
2.2.1 The properties of Liquids

There are 5 properties of liquids:

1. Volume and Shape

2. Compressibility

3. Diffusion

4. Surface tension

5. Viscosity
2.2.1 The properties of Liquids

1. Volume and Shape


 has a definite volume but not a definite shape

a) the particles are arranged


closely but not rigidly
b) Molecules held together by a
intermolecular forces but
they able to move freely

 A liquid flows to fit the shape of its


container and is confined to a
certain volume
2.2.1 The properties of Liquids

2. Compressibility

 in liquid, the particles are packed closely together


 thus, there is very little empty space
  liquids are much more difficult to compress
than gas
How do smell spread out??
Where is the smell coming from and how does it
spread out?
2.2.1 The properties of Liquids

3. Diffusion

 Liquid diffuse slower than gases


due to :
a) molecules are closely packed
compared to gases
b) lower kinetic energy than
gases
c) stronger intermolecular
attractive forces between the
molecules compared to gases
Diffusion of liquid is slower than gas

Diffusion of gas is very fast


2.2.1 The properties of Liquids
4. Surface tension

 is the amount of energy required to stretch the surface


of a liquid by a unit area
 liquid molecules experienced intermolecular
attractive forces in all directions by their
neighbouring molecules
 however, molecules at the
surface are pulled downward and
sideways from the neighbouring
molecules
 but not upward away from the
surface
‘stronger the intermolecular attractive forces,
the higher the surface tension’
The surface tighten like an elastic film

Water strider
EXAMPLE – 01

What happen to the surface tension of a liquid


if its temperature increase?
Explain why.
Ans: EXAMPLE – 01

Surface tension decrease:


Because when the temperature increase
the molecules become more energetic
and break up some intermolecular forces.
2.2.1 The properties of Liquids
5. Viscosity
 is resistance(e.g: ability) of liquid to flow
 the greater a liquid’s viscosity, the more slowly it flows.
 viscosity decreases as temperature increases
 It depends on;
 the size of the molecules
 the higher the molar mass, the more
resistance their flow,  more viscous
the liquid
 the strength of intermolecular
attractive forces between the molecules
 the stronger the attractive forces, the
higher the viscosity
EXAMPLE – 02

Explain the following statement:


a) Liquid with long molecules has
higher viscosity that with spherical ones.
b) Liquid molecules with higher molar mass
more viscous than that of a lower molar mass
Ans: EXAMPLE – 02

a) Liquid with long molecules has


higher viscosity that with spherical ones
 Long molecules has larger surface area, so it
has stronger intermolecular force (Van der Waals).

b) Liquid molecules with higher molar mass


more viscous than that of a lower molar mass
 Molecules with higher molar mass has a larger size,
means larger surface area, so it has stronger
intermolecular force (Van der Waals).
EXERCISE – 01
Does the strength of the intermolecular forces
in a liquid changes as the liquid is heated?
Explain.
Why does liquid viscosity decrease with
rising temperature?
Self–STUDY – 01

Compare the characteristics properties of


solids, liquids and gases in terms of:
a) Shape and volume
b) Compressibility
c) Ability to flow
d) Density
e) Motion of molecules
AS CONCLUSION

Properties / Solid Liquid Gas


matter
Shape and Maintain it own Conforms to shape Conforms to
Volume shape and shape and
and size volume of container, volume of
volume limited by container
surface
Compressibility Almost none Very low High

Ability to Flow Almost none Moderate High


(viscosity)
Density High High Low
Motion of Vibrate about Slide past one Very free
molecules fixed positions another freely motion
(diffusion)
Surface tension not related High Not related
2.2.2 Vaporisation

Vaporisation

Define : a process in which molecules escape from liquid


into gaseous state through a surface.
Vaporization

Condensation
Least

Order
Order

Greatest
2.2.2 Vaporisation Process
 A process in which liquid is transformed into gas
Based on kinetics molecular theory,
 molecules in a liquid move quite freely
 each molecule possesses different magnitude of
kinetic energy
 when the kinetic energy is sufficient enough to
overcome the attractive forces that bind them, the
molecules will loosen themselves and be
evaporated off
 Occur in 2 ways;
 evaporation
 Boiling
Self–STUDY – 02

Give the main difference between boiling and


evaporation?
2.2.2 Vaporisation Process
 Factors affected vaporisation rate,
 Surface area
The larger the surface area, chances for the
molecules to escape from the water surface
increases, evaporation rate increases
 Temperature
At higher temperature, more molecules possess
higher kinetic energy,  more molecules have
enough energy to escape from the surface of the
liquid. Thus evaporation rate increases
 Intermolecular attraction forces
the weaker the intermolecular attraction forces, the
faster the evaporation rate
2.2.2 Vapour Pressure

 for a more volatile liquid, it will exert a greater


equilibrium vapour pressure than a less volatile
liquid at the same temperature
 for volatile liquid, the attractive forces between
molecules are weaker compare to the nonvolatile
liquid
 for a less volatile liquid to vaporize and its vapour
pressure to reach the atmospheric pressure, it must
absorb more energy (at higher temperature)
 thereby it boils at a higher boiling point
2.2.2 Condensation process
 A process in which gas is transformed into liquid
Based on kinetics molecular theory;
 some of the vapour molecules may lose their kinetic
energy during the collision
 they do not have enough energy to remain as
vapour molecules
 they reached the surface of the liquid and became
trapped by the attractive forces
 if they cannot overcome the attractive forces, these
vapour molecules return as liquid molecules
 the process is known as condensation
2.2.2 Dynamic Equilibrium
Liquid gas
Rate of vaporization = Rate of condensation

The pressure of the vapor is constant at that


temperature
2.2.2 Dynamic Equilibrium

vapor (gas) phase

liquid phase

Dynamic equilibrium:
EXAMPLE:
two liquid molecules escape

two vapor molecules are captured


2.2.2 Vapourisation vs Condensation
Some molecules at surface have a high enough
kinetic energy to escape

Number of vapor molecules ↑ pressure of vapor ↑


At the same time,

Vapor molecules collide with molecules at


surface and attracted  condense

Vapor molecules ↑ rate of condensation slowly ↑


Eventually,

Rate of vaporization = Rate of condensation


2.2.2 liquid-gas equilibria

In closed container and constant temperature


2.2.2 Vapour Pressure
Define : The pressure exerted by vapour in equilibrium with
its liquid in a closed container

In an open system : In a closed system :


Vapour molecules which vapour molecules which
evaporate off will leaves the surface cannot
diffuse away escape from the system
2.2.2 Vapour Pressure
In a closed system :
When the vapour molecules cannot escape from the
system, they
 remain in the container
 are in contact with the surface of the liquid at
constant random motion
 continually strike :
the wall of the container
other vapour molecules
 the surface of the liquid
molecules

 pressure exerted. This is called the vapour pressure


2.2.3. Boiling point
Define boiling point :
the temperature at which the vapour pressure of
liquid is equal to the external atmospheric pressure
*** at any atmospheric pressure ( e.g: 1 atm, 0.5 atm)

EXAMPLE: Boiling Point of Water


100oC at 760 torr (sea level)
94oC at 610 torr (Boulder, Colorado)
72oC at 270 torr (Mt. Averest)

Define normal boiling point :


the temperature at which a liquid boils when the
external pressure is 1 atm (that is the vapour
pressure is 760 mmHg)
2.2.3. Boiling point

 A process of changes from


liquid to gaseous occur at the
surface and inner part of the
liquid
 bubbles are observed
 temperature remains constant
during the boiling process even
heat is supplied
 occurs at specific temperature
and pressure
2.2.3. Boiling point

Vapor bubbles form within the bulk of


the liquid, rise to the surface and escape
The pressure exerted by escaping molecules
equals that exerted by molecules of the
atmosphere
EXAMPLE – 03
By referring to the graph, what is the boiling
point of water when
the external pressure
is 187.5 mmHg?
Ans: EXAMPLE – 03

65oC
EXERCISE – 02
By referring the following graph, estimate
the boiling point of diethyl ether, water, and
mercury at 0.5 atm.
reminder
Differences between
vaporisation and
boiling
boiling

The change of state of a liquid


vaporisation
into a vapour occuring on the
The change of state of inner and the surface of the
a liquid into a vapour liquid at a certain temperature
occuring at the surface of which the vapour pressure is
of a liquid at any equal to the atmospheric
temperatures and pressure. The temperature is
pressures called the boiling point
Conclusion and Question

Question :

1. How many properties of liquid?. Please describe it.

2. Explain the vaporisation and condensation


process based on kinetic molecular theory and
intermolecular forces.

3. Give the definition of vapour pressure and boiling point.

4. Explain the relationship between intermolecular forces,


vapour pressure and boiling point of liquid.
Conclusion and Question
1. How many properties of liquid?. Please describe it?

answer:

There are 5 properties of solid :


1.Shape and volume ?
2.compressibility
?
3.Surface tension ?
4. diffusion ?
5. viscosity ?
Conclusion and Question
2. Explain the vaporisation and condensation process based on
kinetic molecular theory and intermolecular forces.
answer: ? ?
Vaporisation
The escape of liquid molecules to vapour phase. Occurs when
molecules on the surface of a liquid possess enough kinetic energy
to overcome the attractive forces leave the liquid phase as vapour

Condensation
Process at which vapour molecules return to the liquid phase. Due
to random motion, some of the molecules lose their kinetic energy
during collison, they reached the surface and trapped by attractive
forces and return as liquid molecules
Conclusion and Question

3. Give the definition of vapour pressure and boiling point.

answer :

Define vapour pressure :


the pressure of the vapour over its liquid in a closed
container

Define boiling point :


the temperature at which the vapour pressure of
liquid is equal to the external atmospheric
pressure
Conclusion and Question
4. Explain the relationship between intermolecular forces, vapour
pressure and boiling point of liquid.
answer :

If the intermolecular forces are weak, the liquid


molecules easily escape to form vapour. Therefore, the
liquid vapour pressure is high. The boiling point of the
liquid is low because less energy is needed for its
vapour to achive atmospheric pressure
OR
If the intermolecular forces are strong, the liquid
molecules hardly to escape to form vapour. Therefore,
the liquid vapour pressure is lower. The boiling point of
the liquid is high because more energy is needed for
its vapour to achive atmospheric pressure
End of the slide