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Characteristics and Kinds of

Qualitative Research
Learning Objective

 To describe the characteristics

and kinds of qualitative
Key Understanding
 Knowledge of the characteristics and kinds
of qualitative research is fundamental in
matching a given research topic with the
right research type.

Key Question
 What are the characteristics and kinds of
qualitative research?
Characteristics of Qualitative

1. Human understanding and interpretation

Data analysis results show an individual’s
mental, social, and spiritual understanding of
the world. Hence, through their worldviews, you
come to know what kind of human being
he/she is, including his/her values, beliefs,
likes, and dislikes.
Characteristics of Qualitative
2. Active, powerful, and forceful
 As you go through the research process, you find the
need to amend or rephrase interview questions and
consider varied ways of getting answers, like shifting
from mere speculating to traveling to places for data
 You are not fixated to a certain plan. Rather, you are
inclined to discover your qualitative research design
as your study gradually unfolds or reveals itself in
accordance with your research objectives
Characteristics of Qualitative

3. Multiple research approaches and methods

Qualitative research allows you to approach or
plan your study in varied ways. You are free to
combine this with quantitative research and use
all gathered data and analysis techniques.
Being a multi-method research, a qualitative
study applies to all research types: descriptive,
exploratory, explanatory, case study, etc.
Characteristics of Qualitative

4. Specificity to generalization
Specific ideas in a qualitative research are
directed to a general understanding of
It follows an inductive or scientific method of
thinking, where you start thinking of particular
or specific concept that will eventually lead you
to more complex ideas such as generalizations
or conclusions.
Characteristics of Qualitative

5. Contextualization
A qualitative research involves all variables,
factors, or conditions affecting the study. Your
goal here is to understand human behavior.
Thus, it is crucial for you to examine the
context or situation of an individual’s life—the
who, what, why, how, and other
circumstances—affecting his or her way of life.
Characteristics of Qualitative

6. Diversified data in real-life situations

A qualitative researcher prefers collecting data
in a natural setting like observing people as
they live and work, analyzing photographs or
videos as they genuinely appear to people, and
looking at classrooms unchanged or adjusted
to people’s intentional observations .
Characteristics of Qualitative
7. Abounds with words and visuals
 Data gathering through interviews or library
reading, as well as the presentation of data
analysis results, is done verbally.
 In some cases, it resorts to quoting some
respondents’ answers. Likewise, presenting
people’s world views through visual presentation
(i.e., pictures, videos, drawings, and graphs) are
significantly used in a qualitative research.
Characteristics of Qualitative
8. Internal analysis
 Here, you examine the data yielded by the internal
traits of the subject individuals (i.e., emotional,
mental, spiritual characteristics).
 You study people’s perception or views about your
topic, not the effects of their physical existence on
your study.
 In case of objects (e.g., books and artworks) that are
subjected to a qualitative research, the investigation
centers on underlying theories or principles that
govern these materials and their usefulness to
Kinds of Qualitative Research

1. Case Study
 Usually takes place in the field of social care, nursing,
psychology, rehabilitation centers, education, etc.
 This involves a long-time study of a person, group,
organization, or situation. It seeks to find answers to
why such thing occurs to the subject.
 Varieties of data collection methods such as
interviews, questionnaires, observations, and
documentary analysis are used in a case study.
Kinds of Qualitative Research

2. Ethnography
 Falling in the field of anthropology,
ethnography is the study of a particular cultural
group to get a clear understanding of its
organizational set-up, internal operation, and
 A particular group reveals the nature or
characteristics of their own culture through the
world perceptions of the cultural group’s
Kinds of Qualitative Research

3. Phenomenology
 From the word “phenomenon,” which means
something known through sensory experience,
phenomenology refers to the study of how
people find their experiences meaningful.
 Its primary goal is to make people understand
their experiences about death of loved ones,
care for handicapped persons, friendliness of
people, etc.
Kinds of Qualitative Research

4. Content and Discourse Analysis

 Content analysis requires an analysis or examination of
the substance or content of the mode of communication
(letters, books, journals, photos, video recordings, SMS,
online messages, emails, audio-visual materials, etc.)
used by a person, group, organization, or any institution
in communicating.

 A study of language structures used in the medium of

communication to discover the effects of sociological,
cultural, institutional, and ideological factors on the
content makes it a discourse analysis.
Kinds of Qualitative Research

5. Historical Analysis
Central to this qualitative research method is
the examination of primary documents to make
you understand the connection of past events
to the present time.
The results of your content analysis will help
you specify phenomenological changes in
unchanged aspects of society through the
Kinds of Qualitative Research
6. Grounded Theory
 This theory takes place when you discover a
new theory to underlie your study at the time of
data collection and analysis.
 Through your observation on your subjects, you
will happen to find a theory that applies to your
current study.
 Interview, observation, and documentary
analysis are the data gathering techniques for
this type of qualitative research.