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Presented by:

Aftab Rafique
CMS 28874

Waterfall Model (Elicit and Traditional)


M.Phil Research Thesis

Presented to Dr.Naveed Ikram
A Simulation Model for the Waterfall Software Development Life Cycle
(By Youssef Bassil from Lebanese Association for Computational Sciences Beirut, Lebanon)

Problem Solution Proposal

• Significant budget overruns • This paper proposes a simulation
• Late or suspended deliveries model for the Waterfall
• Dissatisfied clients development process using the
• Project directors are not wisely Simphony.NET simulation tool
assigning the required number of • Will play role to assist project
workers and resources on the managers in determining how to
various activities of the SDLC achieve the maximum productivity
with the minimum number of
expenses, workers, and hours.
New Idea In Waterfall Model For Real Time Software Development
(By Unnati A. Patel Niky K. Jain.b , ISTAR, Vallabh Vidya Nagar, Gujrat India)

Problem Solution Proposal

• Difficult to survive with change • Modifications to the model, which
• Defects are detected too late in the correct most of the problems
software development process. • Proposed modification can allow
• Another problem is related to changing the client requirement at
prototype i.e. user can only view the any stage. after each stage there is a
proposed system after testing review by user.
• User can view the system model
before development of the actual
system & after each stage, it saves
the cost and time both.
Analysis of the waterfall model for the software development process and
possibilities for its improvement
( By Oleksandr Redkyn Ryerson University Canada)

Problem Solution Proposal

• Unstable - since client requirements have • Requirements are fixed but they are not
to be fixed before the development general and consist of the answer to one
process begins. question: "What system has to do?"
• Impossible to test at early stages - • All the decision power should be given to
problems appear only during the system developers, not to customers.
testing. • Developers go through Concept and
• Prone to under capacity - since system Requirement
performance cannot be tested until the • Analysis stages. At the Architectural Design
system coding is finished. they stop and go back to customers.
• Too expensive - since requirement However, customers may not change their
inconsistencies and missing components answer to the question "What the system
are discovered during design and coding should do?
The Waterfall Model in Large-Scale Development
(Kai Petersen, Claes Wohlin and Dejan Baca Blekinge Institute of Technology Ronneby, Sweden)

Problem Solution Proposal

• Model does not cope well with change • Model is not suitable for large scale
• Generates a lot of rework development. With the same reason
• Confusion on implementations of version Company shifted to agile modelling in
of the requirements. 2005.
• High effort for maintenance.
• Specialized competence focus and lack of
confidence of people.
• Problems in fault localization due to
communication barriers
The Demise of the Waterfall Model Is Imminent” and Other Urban Myths
( By Phillip A. Laplante and Colin J. Neill, Penn State University )

Problem Solution Proposal

• In software development, change is • Prototyping as a feedback and discovery
unavoidable and must therefore be mechanism so that initial
explicitly accommodated in the life cycle. misunderstandings and omissions could be
• The more we understand something, the identified early.
more we realize the flaws in our initial • Subsequent process models attempted to
assumptions and conceptions. further mitigate such risks by breaking
• If we cannot readily adapt our solutions to down projects into a series of “mini-
these changes, the costs of Waterfalls” and iterating over the tasks
accommodating such requirements • Delivering increments of the entire system
“errors” escalate exponentially. in a sequence of releases
Software Engineering Methodologies: A Review of the Waterfall Model and
Object Oriented Approach
(Adetokunbo A.A. Adenowo, Basirat A. Adenowo)

Problem Solution Proposal

• Inability to evaluate the outcome of one • Waterfall not to be used when compared
stage before moving on to the next with OOA
(intermittent evaluation) • OOA being more efficient and effective,
• Inability to go back to any step to make facilitating better user satisfaction of
changes in the system. information systems than the waterfall.
• Sometimes, the client is not very clear of • OOA thus tends to have an edge over
what he exactly wants from the software, traditional waterfall model.
so mentioning any changes in between
may cause a lot of confusion.
• The entire process is sequential and there
is no opportunity to revisit the previous
Gist of Problems

Business Technical Miscellaneous

1. More costly 1. People blindly follow 1. You’ll never know what

2. Minimum ROI plans stage you really are on.
3. Can lack behind from 2. End-users do not know 2. High risk and uncertainty
competitors what they want. 3. Can not turn back
3. Testing for quality may
4. Sequential process and
changes become costly in
terms of cost and effort
Requirement Management
(Waterfall Model)

Version Control Change Control Requirement Status tracking Requirement Tracing

1. Necessary for 1. No unnecessary change is 1. Proposed 1. Maintain the

maintenance of record of made 2. In Progress traceability of all
any changes made due to 2. Record of all changes has 3. Drafted requirements from
which version has been been kept 4. Approved capabilities need via
changed 3. Ensures resources are 5. Implemented design and test
2. It allows you to revert used properly 6. Verified 2. Document all
selected files back to a 4. No disruption 7. Deferred changes to those
previous state, revert the 5. Reduces the chances of 8. Deleted requirements, and
entire project back to a unauthorized alterations, 9. Rejected 3. Record the rationale
previous state, compare disruption and errors in for those changes
changes over time the system.