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LITERATURE

 Literature is the beautiful expression of


man’s personal interpretation of some
aspects of human life or wording out in
a unique, beautiful and personal
manner of saying what an author
thinks is a passionate meaning of life.
 It is the life itself
- Amador Daguio
Pre-Colonization
 Oral and written were present
 Written literary were found in
 Leaves
 Bamboo canes
 Ground
 Stones
 Wall in the caves
Pre-Colonization
 Writtenliterature (continues by
word of mouth)
 Riddles
 Proverbs
 Folksongs / folktales
 Myths
 Legends
 Draw a picture or any source
of something that represent
the pre-colonial literature.
RIDDLES
 Poetic in form and come in 1-4 lines.
 Serve as a form of folk speech and are
about the battle of the wits
 Use one of more images to refer to an
object to be guessed
 It usually uses rhyming words
 METAPHOR – prominent element found
 - a figure of speech that uses direct
comparison of two unlike things being
Reading of riddles
 Three eyes have I, all in a row; when the red one
opens, all freeze.”
 “What animal walks on all fours in the morning,
two in the afternoon and three in the evening?”
 “What gets wetter and wetter the more it dries?”
 What is so fragile that when you say its name
you break it?
 I have a tail, and I have a head, but i have no
body. I am NOT a snake. What am I?
 What falls, but does not break, and what breaks
but does not fall?

 You throw away the outside and cook the inside.
Then you eat the outside and throw away the
inside. What did you eat?
 I have holes in my top and bottom, my left and
right, and in the middle. But I still hold water.
What am I?
 What can run but never walks, has a mouth but
never talks, has a head but never weeps, has a
bed but never sleeps?
 When I tugged the vine, the monkeys went wild
 A wild pig in the forest covered with spikes
 There are two brothers, they turn their back on
one another
FOLK NARRATIVES (myths legends ad
folktales)
 Myths – prose narratives
explaining how the world and
the people came to be in their
from.
THE ORIGIN OF THE STARS AND THE
EXPLANATION OF SUNSET AND SUNRISE
It is said that in the olden time the Sun and
the Moon were married. They led a peaceful,
harmonious life. Two children were the issue of their
wedlock.
One day the Moon had to attend to one of the
household duties that fall to the lot of a woman, some
say to get water, others say to get the daily supply of
food from the fields. Before departing, she crooned the
children to sleep and told her husband to watch them
but not to approach lest by the heat that radiated from
his body he might harm them. She then started upon her
errand
The Sun, who never before had been allowed to
touch his bairns, arose and approached their
sleeping place. He gazed upon them fondly, and,
bending down, kissed them, but the intense heat that
issued from his countenance melted them like wax.
Upon perceiving this he wept and quietly betook
himself to the adjoining forest in great fear of his
wife.
The Moon returned duly, and after depositing her
burden in the house turned to where the children
slept but found only their dried, inanimate forms. She
broke out into a loud wail, and in the wildness of her
grief called upon her husband. But he gave
no answer.
Finally softened by the loud long plaints, he
returned to his house. At the sight of him the
wild cries of grief and of despair and of rebuke
redoubled themselves until finally
the husband, unable to soothe the wife,
became angry and called her his chattel.
At first she feared his anger and quieted her
sobs, but, finally breaking out into one long
wail, she seized the burnt forms of her babes,
and in the depth of her anguish and her rage
threw them to the ground in different
directions.
Then the husband became angry again,
and, seizing some taro leaves that his wife
had brought from the fields, cast them in
her face and went his way. Upon his return
he could not find his wife, and so it is to this
day that the Sun follows the Moon in
an eternal cycle of night and day. And so it
is, too, that stars stand scattered in the
sable firmament, for they, too,
accompany her in her hasty flight.
Ever and anon a shooting star
breaks across her path, but that is only
a messenger from her husband to call
her back. She, however, heeds it not,
but speeds on her way in never-ending
flight with the marks of the taro
leaves still upon her face and her starry
train accompanying her to the dawn
and on to the sunset in one eternal
flight.
Memory Lane.

Each will recite a


proverb that they heard
from their elders.
PROVERBS
 Aphorism express norms or codes
of behavior, community beliefs or
they instill values by offering
nuggets of wisdom in short,
rhyming verse
 Filipino proverbs or salawikain –
echo the values of the Philippines
 If you plant, you harvest
 A TREE IS KNOWN BY ITS FRUIT” – (of Zulu
origin - this means that success is shown by the
deeds.)
 “I HAVE BEEN BITTEN BY A TSETSE FLY” – (of
Tanzanian origin – this means that a person will
continuously be a pest until you pay off a debt.)
 “THE WORD OF FRIEND MAKES YOU CRY –
THE WORD OF AN ENEMY MAKES YOU
LAUGH” – (of Algeria, Burkina Faso, Mali,
Mauritania, and Niger – this means that a friend
will tell you the truth and sometimes the truth
hurts, whereas an enemy will only lead you down
the wrong path by giving you advice that seems
good but is not.)
1. “The old horse in the stable still
yearns to run”
2. “A spark can start a fire that burns
the entire prairie”
3. “Give a man a fish and you feed him
for a day; teach a man to fish
and you feed him for a lifetime”
4. "All that glitters is not gold”
5. "Absence makes the heart grow
fonder”
Recall any
proverbs or
salawikain and give
its meaning
How do oral literatures
affect the way of living of
the residents of
Balasiao?
Task:
Research about the legend
of our barangay. You may
interview the elders in the
community
The Story of Tunkung Langit and Alunsina

 Compare and contrast the story of


Creation as told of the Story of
Tunkung Langit and Alunsina to
the story of creation that appears in
Genesis from the Catholic regilion
bible
FOLK SONGS
 Form of folk lyric which expresses
the HOPES, ASPIRATION, LIFE
STYLES, LOVE of the people.
 Repetitive and echoing, moralistic,
naïve
 Lullabies, love songs, harana
EPICS
 Ethos-epic because it shows histories of
various groups.
 Revolved around supernatural events or
heroic deeds and embody beliefs and
customs and ideals of a community.
 Sung / chatted to the accompaniment of
indigenous musical instruments
PROSE FICTION
Song Analysis
What is message of the
song?
From whom do we owe
our freedom?
Activity:
Draw a symbol that
would represent your
love for our country
What is the significance /
message of your drawing?
Do you express same love
for the country the way the
Filipinos did During Spanish
Era?
How can this be likened to
what the Filipino did during
Spanish colonization
Spanish Colonization
 1521 – Spanish came in the
Philippines
 Written literature was born (use of
paper)
 Religion – prominent characteristics
of our literature
 Goodness is rewarded & evil deeds is
punished
SC: RELIGION
Introduced theater – komedya,
sinakulo, sarswela, dramas
Internationalism – heavily
influenced Filipino intellectuals
and writer to understand the
meanings of “liberty and freedom”
Literature:

 Religious prose & poetry


 (From poems of landinos) form of
catechisms during thiss period & way of
teaching Filipnos the Spanish Language
 Gaspar Aquino’s de Belen – Ang Mahal na
Passion ni Jesu Christong Panginoon

 Secular prose and poetry


Literature:
 Romantic tradition that gave birth to
metric romance: Awit and Korido.
 Florante at Laura
 Poets
 Jose Corazon de Jesus (Huseng Sisiw)
 Francisco Balagtas
Literature:
 Love for one’s country
 Discontent for Spanish rule
 Jose Rizal (Mi Ultimo Adios) love for native
soil
 Andres Bonifacio (Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang
Lupa) – patriotic poem
If you were in the shoes of
Rizal and Bonifacio,
would you do the same,
fighting against opponents
through pen?
Summary
 Religion – prominent characteristics of our
literature
 Introduced theater
 Internationalism
 Religious & Secular prose & poetry
 Romantic tradition that gave birth to metric
romance
 Love for one’s country
 Discontent for Spanish rule
Game
 charade
video
American
Colonizati
Development in education and
culture:
Free public Instruction
for all children
○ Knowledge and information
became accessible to Filipinos
Use of English as
medium of Instruction
 Period of apprenticeship in literary
writing in English (imitation of style of
storytelling of famous American
fictionist)
 Experimental stage – use of free verse
but traditional rhyme and meter were
retained
 Abundance in novels appeared in
magazine and newspaper (vernacular)
 Short stories in English
+ Filipino ideals about
life and morality
blossomed
 Paz Marquez Benitez –
“The dead stars”
 Manuel Arguilla – “How
My Brother Leon Brought
Home a Wife”
Interplay of fate, love and social
justice
 Inigo Ed Regalado
 Roman Reyes
 Lazaro Francisco
 Rosalia Aguinaldo
 Iloko Writers: (Region’s poet laureate)
 Hermogenes Belen
 Mena Pecson Crisologo – Ayat ti Kararawa
(Noli me Tangere)
 Visayas
(love, courtship, farmland, social
commotions)
 Magdalena Jalandoni
 Ramon Muzones
 Marcel Navarra (wrote novel in Sugbuhanon
(Cebuano)
 Poetry continued to flourish
in all regions
 Francisco F. Balagtas –
nation’s foremost poet
invented the BALAGTASAN
– debate in verse, poetical
battle
Post War
and
Contempora
 Literature came in 3 languages : Filipino,
Spanish, English
 Filipino writers continue to write novels, short
stories: socially committed, gender/ethnic
related issues
 Literature became social-realist
 Edgardo Reyes - “Sa Mga Kuko ng Liwanag”
(critic of urban blight)
 Edilberto K. Tiempo - “To Be Free” (historical
probe of the western idea of freedom in the
context of indigenous Philippine Culture
 Kerima Polotan Tuvera – “ The Hand of the
Enemy”
Workshops here and abroad and the bulk
of literature available in the internet make
writer more conscious about this art

With the various literary award (Don


Carlos Palanca Memorial Award, Phil.
Free Press, Home Life and Panorama
Award) encourage the Filipino writers to
compete with their peers.
Give one important key points in each period
Pre-Colonial Spanish American Post War &
period Colonization Colonization Contemporary
Period