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Presented by

Faheem Ahmed Wassan(18-IN-55)

Ayan Memon (18-IN-41)
Ali Bux(18-IN-27)
Araiz (18-IN-19)
•Instatistics, a central tendency is a
central value or a typical value for a
probability distribution.
•The most common measures of
central tendency are the arithmetic
mean, the median and the mode.
•To find representative value
•To make more concise data
•To make comparisons
•Helpful in further statistical analysis
Statisticians have developed four
different methods for measuring central
1. The Mean
2. The Median
3. The mode and
4. Midrange
The mean is the sum of all the data values divided by
number of values.

To find the mean of 3,5,7.
Step 1 Find the sum of the numbers.
Step 2: Calculate the total number.
there are 3 numbers.
Step 3: Find mean
 Find the mean of the array.

4, 3, 8, 9, 1, 7, 12

 x 4  3  8  9  1  7  12 44
x    6.29  6.3
n 7 7
•Mean can be calculated for any set of
numerical data, so it always exists.
•A set of numerical data has one and only
one mean.
•It is used only if the data are interval or
•The median is the second measure of central
•The Median is middle number when the data
are arranged in order.
•There are no specific symbols or notions to
identify the median.
•The median is simply identified by the word
 Odd# in set: falls exactly on the
middle number.

 Even# in set: falls in between the

two middle values in the set; find
the average of the two middle
A. 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 - the median is 4.
•This example demonstrates the calculation of
the median when n is an odd number.

B. 6, 7, 8, 9, 9, 10
median = (8+9)/2 = 8.5.
•This example demonstrates the calculation of
the median when n is an even number.
•It is not based on all the values.
•It is not capable of further mathematical
•It is affected fluctuation of sampling.
•Mode is the most frequent value or score
in the distribution.
•It is defined as that value of the item in a
•It is denoted by the capital letter Z.
1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 3, 3


The mode is 2, because its occurs most often

Find the mode.

A. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 - no mode

B. 4, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 6, 9 - 4 ,6, and 9
•Mode is readily comprehensible and
easily calculated
•It is the best representative of data.
•It is not at all affected by extreme value
•The value of mode can also be
determined graphically.
•It is not based on all observations.
•It is not capable of further mathematical
•Mode is affected to a great extent by
sampling fluctuations.