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INTRODUCTION

It is known fact there are innumerable chemicals & each


chemical can be made through different routes. Let us
consider major sub groups of chemical industry:
 Oil & natural gas exploration
 Petroleum refining
Petrochemicals
 Heavy inorganic chemicals like Caustic soda,
chlorine, soda ash, sulfuric acid, etc.
 Polymers like polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene,
PVC, styrene based polymers, etc.
 Mining and further processing to obtain products like
steel, aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, etc
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Paints, pigments & varnishes
 Dyes & textile auxiliaries
 Pharmaceuticals
 Fine chemicals & perfumes

As chemical industries grew in size & complexity, it


became imperative to have some unifying principle in
this vast ocean of data & information, i.e., unity in
diversity. This approach helps us in evolving common
methodology of resolving chemical industry problems.
Thus we move away from product specific issue to topic
related issue.
Hence, chemical industry practices are divided into two
major sub headings:1) Unit Operations—related to non
chemical reaction operations which are common to
all industries.
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INTRODUCTION
 Fluid Flow: principles, measurement & design
/specifications of equipment required for movement of
fluids, i.e., pumps, fans, blowers, compressors, piping
items, etc.
 Heat transfer: principles, measurement & design
/specifications of equipment required for supply/removal of
heat, i.e., heat exchangers, jackets, coils, refractory walls,
insulation, etc.
 Filtration: principles, measurement & design
/specifications of equipment required for separation of fluid
(liquid or gas) from solid.
 Distillation: method of separating miscible liquid mixture
of two or more compounds which produces vapor mixture
of different composition than original liquid mixture
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 . Study of principles & design/specifications of
equipment needed for separation of a specified
mixture.
Absorption: Removal/recovery of a solute gas
from a mixture of gases by dissolving it in a
solvent to obtain a solution. Study of principles &
design/specifications of equipment needed for
separation of a specified gaseous mixture.
Liquid-liquid extraction: Selective extraction of a
component of homogeneous liquid mixture in another
solvent to affect separation. Study of principles &
design/specifications of equipment needed for
separation of a specified mixture.
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» Leaching: Selective extraction of a component of a
solid mixture in solvent to affect separation. Study of
principles & design/specifications of equipment
needed for separation of a specified mixture.
Adsorption: Selective adsorption on porous solid of a
component of a liquid or gaseous mixture to affect
separation. Study of principles & design/specifications
of equipment needed for separation of a specified
mixture.
Humidification/dehumidification: Selective
increase/decrease of vapor content of gaseous
mixture. Study of principles & design/specifications of
equipment needed for increasing or reducing solvent
content of a gas.

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INTRODUCTION
 Crystallization: Production of pure solid particles from solution.
Study of principles & design/specifications of equipment
needed for a product duty.

 Drying: removal of adhering liquid from solid product in vapor


form. Study of principles & design/specifications of equipment
needed for a given duty.

 Membrane Separation: Separation of a liquid mixture into its


constituents based on molecular volume of its constituents.
Study of principles & design/specifications of Membrane
Separation equipment.

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INTRODUCTION
 2) Unit Processes---related to study of chemical
reactions having common reactants and/or
common attached group in product.
 Nitration: Manufacture of compounds like
nitrobenzene, o- & p-nitrochlorobenzene, nitro
toluene, nitroparaffins, etc.
 Amination: Manufacture of compounds like aniline,
p-phenylenediamine, xylidines, etc.
 Halogenation: Manufacture of compounds
like chlorobenzene, chloropentanes, allyl chloride,
trichloroethane, monochloroacetic acid, chloral,
ethylene chlorohydrin, etc.
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 Sulfonation & Sulfation: Sulfonation of benzene,
dodecylbenzene, lubricating oils, lauryl alcohol,
naphthalene, aniline, etc.
Similarly, sulfation of dimethyl ether, lauryl alcohol,
etc.
 Oxidation: products of ethylene, propylene,
benzene, toluene, naphthalene, ethylbenzene,
cumene, o & p-xylenes, etc.
 Hydrogenation: of fats, acids or esters to
alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc. Synthesis of methanol.

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 Esterification: Manufacture of ethyl acetate, butyl &
amyl acetate, alkyd resin, cellulose esters,
nitroglycerine, etc.
 Alkylation: Manufacture of dodecylbenzene,
cumene, ethylbenzene, phenacetin, ethyl cellulose,
etc.
 Hydrolysis: Manufacture of soap, glycerol,
carbohydrates, etc.
Hydrocarbon Synthesis & Hydroformylation:
Three Processes, viz, Oxo, Synol & Iso synthesis are
related to Fischer-Tropsch process in that
hydrocarbons or oxygenated chemicals are produced
from mixture of hydrogen & carbon monoxide.
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For each type of reaction, we will try to study:
a) Major methods of carrying out reaction including
operating parameters like reaction conditions(time,
temperature, pressure, etc.), reactants proportion,
catalyst, etc.
b) Material balance & yield aspects
c) Thermodynamic considerations & energy aspects
d) Kinetic considerations
e) Industrial practices
f) Useful inferences from analogous reactions.
This reduces experimental work & thereby saving
considerable efforts of manpower, resources & time.
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g) Proper understanding of technology helps us in
i) Knowing limitations of prevailing practices.
ii) Attempts to overcome limitations by
introducing better technological methods
which are also economically viable.
iii) ii) above requires knowledge of
technology, engineering methodology &
economic considerations.

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